CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

National Government Currency

              Seal of the Confederate States of America.svg

First National Flag and the Great Seal of the Confederate States of America

The first Confederate banknotess were issued in Montgomery, Alabama, the then-capital of the Confederate States of America (CSA). The CSA for formally proclaimed in February 1862 by the seven States that had seceded from the United States following the election of Lincoln. The capital was moved to Richmond Virginia in May 1861. Meanwhile four other states joined the Confederacy and two other States had both Confederate and Union government factions (Kentucky and Missouri). Maryland had pro-secession feelings but Lincoln arrested or barred the strongest pro-Southern State legislators from their constitutional duties to prevent enactment of a secession declaration. Maryland did provide many units that fought with the Confederacy against the Federals. In addition there was the Territory of Arizona encompassimg much of today's States of New Mexico and Arizona. 

After secession, the seceding States called for the US to abandon their military bases in their trerritories. In April 1861, Lincoln sent a replenishment ship to Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston South Carolina. This caused the bombardment of Fort Sumter and launched the War for Southern Independence. These bonds were issued to support the Confederate Government and for defense of their territories from Northern agression. 

The first four notes were issued in Montgomery but they are exceedingly rare (and expensive). All subsequent notes were issued under the Richmond government.

Confederate banknotes were cataloged by Grover Criswell who issued his Confederate and Southern States Currency  first edition in 1957. There has been several editions published since then. Criswell set up Type numbers as well as catalog numbers. Many of the motes have several subtypes that Criswell has cataloged. George Cuhaj came out with a more recent catalog that provides more detailed backgroundinformation than Criswell but the note subtypes are not listed as in Criswell. 

For years there was a saying "Save your Confederate money, the South will rise again." With the current Federal misgovernment, that might be the salvation of the American Republic if the good people of this country rebelled against Washington DC. Nonetheless, Congress addressed Confederate currency. The Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution enacted on 9 July 1868 forbade recognition of Confederate debt:

"But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, ... but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void."

Most of these notes were issued uniface though some of the later notes did have engraved backs. Many of these notes were interest bearing and some have been stamped on the backs with Interest Paid handstamps denoting the date and the paying office identity.

This is Criswell Type 8 with the catalog number 16. This Plare B $50 note was issued on July 25, 1861 with a hand written serial number 19462. It pictures George Washington with a vignette of a seated Tellus at the lower left. The note was hand signed by Registrar C. C. Thayer and the Treasurer Jno Ott. The note was engraved by Hoyer & Ludwig, Richmond Va. There were 125,364 of these notes issued.

This is Criswell Type 9 with the catalog number 29A. This $20 note was issued on July 25, 1861 with a hand written serial number 52241. It pictures a sailing ship. The note was hand signed by for Registrar R. J. Delony and for Treasurer R. H. L. Tighe. The note was engraved by Hoyer & Ludwig, Richmond Va. There were 264,988 of these notes issued.

This is Criswell Type 18 with the catalog number 106. This Plate K A $20 note was issued on September 2, 1861 with a hand written serial number 17006. It pictures a sailing ship with a vignette of a sailor leaning on a capstan at the lower left. The note was hand signed by for Registrar C. C. Thayer and for Treasurer Jno. Ott. The note was engraved by Hoyer & Ludwig, Richmond Va. There were 2,366,743 of these notes issued.

This is Criswell Type 20 with the catalog number 141. This First Series $20 note was issued on September 2, 1861 with a hand written serial number 67857. It pictures Industry flanked by Cupid and a beehive with a vignette of Vice President Alexander H. Stephens at the lower left and Hope with an anchor at the lower right. The note was hand signed by for Registrar J. T. Dickson and for Treasurer D. Lyon. The note was engraved by B. Duncan, Richmond. There were 2,835,285 of these notes issued.

This is Criswell Type 24 with the catalog number 165H. This Plate H $10 note was issued on September 2, 1861 with a hand written serial number 25988. It has a vignette of Secretary of State R. M. T. Hunter at the lower left and a baby at the lower right. The note was hand signed by for Registrar C. C. Thayer and for Treasurer J. W. Jones. The note was engraved by Leggett, Keatinge & Ball, Richmond Va. There were 278,400 of these notes issued.

This is Criswell Type 26 with the catalog number 173. This Plate W $10 note was issued on September 2, 1861 with a hand written serial number 37452. It has a central vignette of Hope with an anchor, Secretary of State R. M. T. Hunter at left and C. G. Memminger at right. The note was hand signed by for Registrar J. O. Snyder and for Treasurer J. W. Jones. The note was engraved by Keatinge & Ball, Richmond Va. There were 562,800 of these notes issued.

This is Criswell Type 28 with the catalog number 232. This Plate A10 $10 note was issued on September 2, 1861 with a hand written serial number 35657. It has a vignette of Ceres with an urn (denoting Agriculture) and Commerce at the top left and a train at the right center. The note was hand signed by for Registrar M. C. Riggs and for Treasurer M. M. Young. The note was engraved by Hoyer & Ludwig, Richmond Va. There were 1,076,738 of these notes issued (some by Ldwig and others by J. T. Patterson).

This is Criswell Type 30 with the catalog number 239. This Second Series Plate 4 $10 note was issued on September 2, 1861 with a hand written serial number 39561. It has a vignette of Gen Marion's Sweet Potato Dinner at center, Secretary of State R. M. T. Hunter at the lower left and Minerva at the right. The note was hand signed by for Registrar S. G. Tinsley and for Treasurer M.. Darby. The note was engraved by B. Duncan. There were 1,949,465 of these notes issued.

This is Criswell Type 36 with the catalog number 274. This Plate 13A $5 note was issued on September 2, 1861 with a hand written serial number 135491. It has a vignette of Commerce seated on a bale of cotton at center and a sailor leaning on a capstan at the lower left. The note was hand signed by for Registrar J

. H. Harris and for Treasurer R. Bain. The note was engraved by J. Paterson, Columbia S.C. There was 469,660 of these notes issued.

This is Criswell Type 37 with the catalog number 284. This Plate H $5 note was issued on September 2, 1861 with a hand written serial number 83832. It has a vignette of sailor seated with bales of cotton at center, Secretary of the Treasury Christopher Memminger at the lower left, Justice and Ceres at the right. The note was hand signed by for Registrar E. H. Smith and for Treasurer G. J. Gale. The third series note was engraved by D. Duncan, Columbia SC. There were 1,003,289 of these notes issued including the Cr-285 ones.

This is Criswell Type 37 with the catalog number 285. This Second Series Plate 3 $5 note was issued on September 2, 1861 with a hand written serial number 3071. It has a vignette of sailor seated with bales of cotton at center, Secretary of the Treasury Christopher Memminger at the lower left, Justice and Ceres at the right. The note was hand signed by for Registrar (indistinct)  and for Treasurer J. S. Lewis. The third series note was engraved by D. Duncan, Columbia SC. There were 1,003,289 of these notes issued.

This is Criswell Type 39 with the catalog number 300. This Plate A g $100 interest bearing note was issued on June 20, 1862 with a hand written date and serial number 12991. It has a vignette of a train with straight steam with a ship in the distance at center and a milkmaid at the lower left. The note was hand signed by for Registrar R. J. Delony  and for Treasurer H. Ke4pler. The note was engraved by J. T. Paterson, Columbia SC. There were 559,200 of these notes issued. The back has handstamps: Interest Paid to 1st January 1863 Richmond; Interest Paid to 1st January 1864 Jackson; Interest Paid to 1st January 1865 Jackson.

This is Criswell Type 41 with the catalog number 316. This $100 Series Y interest bearing note was issued on November 6, 1862 with a hand written date and serial number 45163. It has Negro slaves hoeing a field at center, John C. Calhoun, renowned Southron senator at the lower left, and Columbia at right. The note was hand signed by for Registrar WQ. T. Snead and for Treasurer A. S. Watts. The note was engraved by Keatinge & Ball, Columbia SC. There were 670,400 of these notes issued. This is Scroll 1 variety. The back has handstamps: Interest Paid to 1st January 1863 Savannah; Interest Paid to 1st January 1864 Augusta (very weak).

This is Criswell Type 41 with the catalog number 318A. This $100 Plate X interest bearing note was issued on October 29, 1862 with a hand written date and serial number 33211. It has Negro slaves hoeing a field at center, John C. Calhoun, renowned Southron senator at the lower left, and Columbia at right. The note was hand signed by for Registrar W. T. Snead  and for Treasurer A. S. Watts. The note was engraved by Keatinge & Ball, Columbia SC. There were 670,400 of these notes issued. The back has handstamps: Interest Paid to 1st January 1863 Savannah; Interest Paid to 1st January 1864 Tallahassee; Interest Paid to 1st January 1865 Tallahassee. This is the Scroll 1 variety engraved on block lettered C S A watermarked paper (the C  and part of the S is visible from the back at about mid-csnter to top-center).

This is Criswell Type 41 with the catalog number 318. This $100 Series Z interest bearing note was issued on October 29, 1862 with a hand written date and serial number 7400. It has Negro slaves hoeing a field at center, John C. Calhoun, renowned Southron senator at the lower left, and Columbia at right. The note was hand signed by for Registrar J. M. Kinney and for Treasurer H. C. Williams. The note was engraved by Keatinge & Ball, Columbia SC. There were 670,400 of these notes issued. The back has hand stamps: Issued Sep 8 1862 Charleston (postmark); Interest Paid to 1st January 1863 Charleston; Interest Paid to 1st January 1864 Charleston; blue Interest Paid to 1st January 1865 Columbia S.C. This is the Scroll 2 unwatermarked paper variety.

This is Criswell Type 42 with the catalog number 336. This Second Series $2 note with plate number 3 was issued on June 2, 1862 with a hand written serial number 36359. It has a personification of the South striking down Northern tyranny at center and Judah P. Benjamin, Secretary of Treasury, at the upper left. The note was hand signed by for Registrar J. L.Johnston and for Treasurer E. H. Fauntleroy. The note was engraved by B. Duncan, Columbia SC. There were about 1,500,000 of these notes issued.

This is Criswell Type 42 with the catalog number 337. This Third Series Plate 5 $2 note was issued on June 2, 1862 with a hand written serial number 35247. It has a personification of the South striking down Northern tyranny at center and Judah P. Benjamin, Secretary of Treasury, at the upper left. The note was hand signed by for Registrar M. H. Bailey and for Treasurer M. W. Knox. The note was engraved by B. Duncan, Columbia SC. There were about 1,500,000 of these notes issued.

This is Criswell Type 44 with the catalog number 339. This Third Series Plate 8 $1 note was issued on June 2, 1862 with a hand written serial number 62698. It has a steamship at sea at center, Liberty at left, and Lucy Holcombe Pickens, wife of the South Carolina Governor, at lower right. The note was hand signed by for Registrar E. A. Adams and for Treasurer M. Godwin. The note was engraved by B. Duncan, Columbia SC. There were about 1,600,000 of these notes issued.

This is Criswell Type 52 with the catalog number 369. This H Plate $10 note was issued on December 2, 1862 with a hand written serial number 115135. It has The South Carolina State Capitol in Columbia at center and Senator R. M. T. Hunter,  at lower right. The note was hand signed by for Registrar W. P. Caldwell and for Treasurer F. C. Weisiger. The note was engraved by Keatinge & Ball, , Columbia SC and printed by B. Duncan. There were 3,060,000 of these notes issued.

This is Criswell Type 56 with the catalog number 402/9. This Plate A $100 note was issued on 6th April 1863 with a red stamped serial number 33481, a red stamp DECEMBER 1863 vertically at right, and part o0f Thresury red eal at top right.. It has Lucy Holcombe Pickens center, two soldiers at lower left, and  George W. Randolph, Secretary of War and Thomas Jefferson's youngest grandson, at lower right. The note was hand signed by for Registrar H. Smith and for Treasurer T. J. Hatch. The note was engraved by Keatinge & Ball, Columbia SC. There were 1,931,600 of these notes issued.

This is Criswell Type 57 with the catalog number 414/1. This 1st Series Plate yA $50 note was issued on 6th April 1863 with a red stamped serial number 4780 and a red stamp MAY 1863 vertically at right. It has President Jefferson Davis at center. The note was hand signed by for Registrar H. Smith and for Treasurer T. J. Hatch. The note was engraved by Keatinge & Ball, Columbia SC. There were 2,234,000 of these notes issued.

This is Criswell Type 60 with the catalog number 450/2. This E Plate 2nd Series $5 note was issued on April 6th 1863 with a hand written serial number 33635 and a red stamp JUNE 1863 vertically at right. It has Capitol of the Confederatre States in Richmond at center and Christopher Memminger at lower right. The note was hand signed by for Registrar M. Morrison and for Treasurer H. Starke. The note was engraved by Keatinge & Ball, Columbia S.C. and lithographed by J. T. Paterson & Co. There were 7,745,600 of these notes issued.

This is Criswell Type 62 with the catalog number 474. This is Plate F 1st Series $1 note was issued on April 6th 1863 with a hand written serial number 11419. It has Alabama Senator Clement C. Clay at center. The note was hand signed by for Registrar M. Morrison and for Treasurer H. Starke. The note was engraved by Keatinge & Ball, Columbia SC. 

This is Criswell Type 64  with the catalog number 489. This Plate C$500 note was issued on February 17th 1864 with a stamped serial number 23879. It has Battle Flag abnd the Great Seal at left with Gen. T. J. "Stonewall" Jackson at lower right  The note was hand signed by for Registrar L. W. Elliott and for Treasurer R. Haynes. The note was engraved by Keatinge & Ball, Columbia SC and was issued uniface. There were 32,900e notes issued. 

This is Criswell Type 65  with the catalog number 494. This Plate D Series II Series 1 $100 note was issued on February 17th 1864 with a stamped serial number 5307. It has Lucy Holcombe Pickens center, two soldiers at lower left, and  George W. Randolph, Secretary of War and Thomas Jefferson's youngest grandson, at lower right.  The note was hand signed by for Registrar S. Johnson and for Treasurer A. Harrison. The note was engraved by Keatinge & Ball, Columbia SC. 

This is Criswell Type 66  with the catalog number 498. This Plate yA 3 Series $50 note was issued on February 17th 1864 with a stamped serial number 3752. It has President Jefferson Davis at center.  The note was hand signed by for Registrar M. A. Yates and for Treasurer M. Wade. The note was engraved by Keatinge & Ball, Columbia SC. 

This is Criswell Type 67 with the catalog number 514. This X Series Plate D $20 note was issued on February 17th 1864 with a hand written serial number 12734. It has the Tennessee State Caitol in Nashville at center and  Vice President Alexander H. Stephens at lower right.  The note was hand signed by for Registrar (illegible) and for Treasurer  (illegible). The note was engraved by Keatinge & Ball, Columbia SC. 

This is Criswell Type 68  with the catalog number 546. This 1 Series Plate H Number 63 $10 note was issued on February 17th 1864 with a hand written serial number 49501. It has horses pulling a cannon and  R. M. T. Hunter at lower right.   The note was hand signed by for Registrar C. Percival and for Treasurer S McCants. The note was engraved by Keatinge & Ball, Columbia SC and printed by Evans & Cogswell.

This is Criswell Type 68  with the catalog number 552. This 10 Series Plate E Number 50 $10 note was issued on February 17th 1864 with a hand written serial number 43277. It has horses pulling a cannon and  R. M. T. Hunter at lower right.  The note was hand signed by for Registrar E. G. Winston and for Treasurer  S. McCants. The note was engraved by Keatinge & Ball Columbia SC and lithographed by Evans & Cogswell. 

This is Criswell Type 69 with the catalog number 558. This D Plate Number 12 $5 note was issued on February 17th 1864 with a hand written serial number 53084. It has Capitol of the Confederatre States in Richmond at center and Christopher Memminger at lower right. The note was hand signed for Registrar by S. C. Hayes and for Treasurer by E. S. Read. The note was lithographed by J. T. Paterson, Columbia SC. 

This is Criswell Type 69 with the catalog number 560. This Series 2 Plate H Number 54 $5 note was issued on February 17th 1864 with a hand written serial number 37046. It has Capitol of the Confederatre States in Richmond at center and Christopher Memminger at lower right. The note was hand signed by for Registrar B. Dabney and for Treasurer M. Selden. The note was engraved by Keatinge & Ball Columbia SC and lithographed by Evans & Cogswell. 

This is Criswell Type 72 with the catalog number 578. This 50 cents note was issued on February 17th 1864 with a stamped serial number 64526. It has President Jefferson Davis at center. The note printed signatures Ro. Tyler and E. C. Elmore. The note was engraved by Archer & Halpin, Richmond, Va. 

 

 

State Government Currency

Most of the State governments in the CSA issued currency during the War.  Presented here are examples from most of these States. The standard listing for these is Grover Criswell's Confederate and Southern States Currency

Most States and many cities and counties throughout the Soutrh issuued currency for local use. Many of these were printed on the backs of other financial paper due to the severe shortage of paper in the South. Many local banks also issued emergency currency.

One pos- war note of great interest to Southron collectors is this one:

This note of the Marion, Selma and Memphis Railroad Company was issued in 1871 and signed by N. B. Forrest. During the war General Nathan Bedord Forrest was the scourge of Yankeedom. He enlisted as a private and advanced to Lieut. General. He operated pretty independently and bravely and was called the "Wizard of the Saddle." When the war started, Forrest asked 45 of his slaves (which he considered as servants) to join him, offering them their freedom after the war, no matter how it turned out. They all joined him and although they had numerous opportunities to desert him, 44 stayed by his side until the end of the war. In fact, part of his special command escort later called "the green berets", consisted of the most elite and best soldiers available, and among them were eight black men. Are you you are aware that nearly 100,000 black men fought for the Confederacy and many of these received State pensions for their service? You probably didn't because of the modern history that blackens the names of every Southern hero of the War.

In my opinion, he was the best general officer on either side. 

ALABAMA

Alabama passed a Secession Ordinance on January 11, 1861 on a vote of 61 for and 29 against. It wqas the fourth State to secede. The seceding States met in Montgomery at the State Capitol to form te Confederate States of America on February 4, 1861

Alabama first issued State currency on January 1, 1863.The first notes bore the printed signature of the Governor, John Gill Shorter. All the notes were engraved and printed by J. T. Paterson of Augusta, Georgia.

 

This is Criswell AL-3. The vignette at the center is of a wagonload of cotton. The image of the State's seal is at upper left and Juliet Hopkins', the Florence Nightingale of the South, portrait is at lower right. The note bears hand written serial number 79220 and was printed from Plate K.

This is Criswell AL-4. The vignette at the center is of State seal. The image of Juliet Hopkins', the Florence Nightingale of the South, portrait is at lower right. The note bears hand written serial number 70163 and was printed from Plate D.

This is Criswell AL-1. The vignette at the center is of State Capitol. The image of Governor John Gill Shorter is at left. The note bears hand written serial number 70163 and hand signed by D. M. Hill, It was printed from Plate G

 

 

ARKANSAS

Arkansas secede from the Union on May 6, 1861, becoming the 6th State to secede by a vote of 59 for and 1 against. 

This is Criswell AR-33IAB. This is a Treasurty Warrant on War Bond for $1 issued on the hand written date of August 21, 1863. It was signed by L. B. Cunningham as Treasurer.It bears two hand written numbers, 102043 at left and 2482 at right. It was printed from Plate A on the back a sheet of Exchange Notes from a bank in Van Buren, Arkansas with a green overprint of ARKANSAS TREASURY WARRANT in flourishes. It was printed by J. D. Butler, Print Lit Rock.

 

FLORIDA

The Secession Ordinance was passed on January 10, 1861 by a vote of 62 for and 7 against. 

This is Criswell FL-24. This is a  banknote for 25 cents issued in Tallahassee on Feb'y 2nd 1863. It was signed by C. H. Austin as Treasurer and co-signed by A. Randoplh, John Millen, and C. Drysdale. 

 

GEORGIA

Georgia's Secession Ordinance was passed by a vote of 208 for and 89 against. 

This is Criswell GA-18. This is a  Plate B banknote for 10 cents issued in Milledegeville on January 1st 1863. It bears printed signatures of Jno. Enis as Treasurer and P. Theocott as Comptroller General. It has the hand written serial number 15200. It was engraved by R. Howell. 

This is Criswell GA-14. This is a  Plate F banknote for 50 cents issued in Milledegeville on January 1st 1863. It hyas a vignette of a group of workmen and bears hand written signatures of R. M. Cartellaw for Treasurer and J. M. Beall for Comptroller General. It has the hand written serial number 34615.It has a green Treasury seal at top right. It was produced by Howell,Engraver.

This is Criswell GA-12B. This is a  Plate A banknote for $1 issued in Milledegeville on January 1st 1863. It has a vignette of a train and bears hand written signatures of R. M. Cartellaw for Treasurer and J. M. Beall for Comptroller General. It has the hand written serial number 3461.It has no Treasury seal. It was produced by Howell,Engraver.

This is Criswell GA-5. This is a  Plate A banknote for $5 issued in Milledegeville on January 15th 1862. It has a vignette of James Oglethorpe, founder of Georgia, in military uniform and bears hand written signatures of Jno. Enis as Treasurer and T. J. Pliousant (?)  for Comptroller General. It has the hand written serial number 13992.It has the Treasury seal on the back. It was produced by Howell, Engr Savannah.

This is Criswell GA-7. This is a  Plate A banknote for $50 issued in Milledegeville on February 2nd 1863. It has a vignette of the Georgia State Seal at center left and bears hand written signatures of Jno. Enis as Treasurer and T. J. Pliousant (?)  for Comptroller General. It has the hand written serial number 10688.It has the Treasury seal on the back. It was produced by Howell, Savannah.

This is Criswell GA-6. This is a  Plate A banknote for $100 issued in Milledegeville on February 1st 1863. It has a vignette of  Governor Joseph E. Brown at center left and bears hand written signatures of Jno. Enis as Treasurer and T. J. Pliousant (?)  for Comptroller General. It has the hand written serial number 10688.It has the Treasury seal on the back. It was produced by Howell, Savannah.

 

LOUISIANA

Louisiana passed its Ordinance of Secession on January 26, 1861 by a vote of 113 to 17.Louisiana raised about 1,000 military companies for the CSA including several Negro regiments. 

This is Criswell LA-8. This is a  Plate B banknote for $1 issued in Baton Rouge on February 24th 1862. It has the State Seal of a beehive center bottom and bears hand written signatures of B. L. Depree for Treasurer and C. H. Peralta  for Auditor. It has the hand written serial number 1581. It was produced by Douglas, N. Orleans and was printed on the back of a sheet of $5 notes printed for a New Orleans bank. 

This is Criswell LA-4. This is a  Plate A banknote for $1 issued in Baton Rouge on February 24th 1862. It has the State Seal of a beehive center bottom and bears hand written signatures of B. L. Depree for Treasurer and C. H. Peralta  for Auditor. It has the hand written serial number 1581. It was produced by Douglas, N. Orleans and was printed on the back of a sheet of $20 notes printed for the Exchange Bank of Holly Springs, Mississippi. 

This is Criswell LA-10. This is a  Plate E banknote for $5 issued in Baton Rouge on October 10th 1862. It has vignette of the South striking down Northern tyranny and bears hand written signatures of B. L. Depree for Treasurer and C. H. Peralta  for Auditor. It has the hand written serial number 33070. The reverse is printed in green. It was produced by B. Duncan, Columbia.

This is Criswell LA-14. This is a  Plate E banknote for $5 issued in Shreveport on March 10th 1863. It has vignette of the South striking down Northern tyranny and bears hand written signatures of  J. R. Hyams for Treasurer and L. Peralta  for Auditor. It has the hand written serial number 419. The reverse is printed in green. It was produced by B. Duncan, Columb.

 

MISSISSIPPI

Mississippi passed its Secession Ordinance on January 9 1861 by a vote of 83 to 15.

This is Criswell MS-43. This is a  Plate B banknote for $2 issued in Macon on May 1st 1863. It has the vignette of a sailing vessel at center and a sailor lkeaning on a capstan at left and bears the hand written signature of  A. J. Gillespie for Auditor. It has the hand written serial number 27488. 

This is Criswell MS-34. This is a  banknote for $20 issued on May 1st1st Nov 1862. It has vignette of a train at center, a plow and rural scene at left top, and two women at the lower right. It bears the hand written signatures of  S. T. Manfred and L. S. Paychtel. It has the hand written serial number 84708. 

This is Criswell MS-49. This is a  Plate F banknote for $50 issued in Macon on May 1st 1863. It has the vignette of a sailing vessel at center and a sailor leaning on a capstan at left and bears the hand written signatures of  T. T. Swann for Auditor and A. Rmigher for Treasurer. It has the hand written serial number 179.  It has an ornate back printed in orange. It was produced by J. T. Paterson Lithographers Augusta Ga.

 

 

MISSOURI

Missouri overwhelmingly voted against Lincoln in the 1860 election. The Governor tried to get a Secession Ordinance through but was thwarted by the Legislature. They did pass a provision refusing to provide troops to the Federals. Missouri was admitted to the CSA on November 28, 1861.

This is Criswell MO-12. This is a  banknote for $1 issued in Jefferson City on January 1st 1862. It has the vignette of President Jefferson Davis flanked by flags and instruments of war at center, a gladiator at left, and a hunter with dog at right. It bears the hand written signature of  N. Shields as Cmr. It has the hand written serial number 61355.  It was engraved by. A. Malus Eng N.O. and was printed on the back of a sheet of bank drafts drawn on the Union Bank of New Orleans.

This is Criswell MO-04A. This is a  banknote for $10 issued in Jefferson City on January 1st 1862. It has the vignette of Ceres with cornucopia at center and a ship at left with an iron-clad at center bottom. It bears the hand written signature of  Tho. H. Murray As Cmr and co-signed by C. J. Jackson. It has the hand written serial number 2406.  The note was issued uniface but the back bears a stamp "Priotr to 1st, Nov'br 1861."

This is Criswell MO-18B. This is an unissued requisition for defense bonds that circulated as currency $1 undated. It has a vignette of a rural scene at center, a belle at bottom right, and the State Seal at lower left. It was engraved by Keatinge & Ball Columbia SC.

This is Criswell MO-21. This is an unissued requisition for defense bonds that circulated as currency $20 undated. It has a vignette of a steamship at center, Liberty seated at upper left, and the State Seal at lower right. It was engraved by Keatinge & Ball Columbia SC. This has a green ornate reverse like the $100 below but I did not scan it at the time.

This is Criswell MO-19. This is an unissued requisition for defense bonds that circulated as currency $100 undated. It has a vignette of President Jefferson Davis at center, a belle at upper left, and he State Seal at lower right. It was engraved by Keatinge & Ball Columbia SC.

 

NORTH CAROLINA

North Carolina unanimously approved a Secession Ordinance on May 20 1861.

This is Criswell NC-113. This is a Plate R banknote for 10 cents issued in Raleigh on Sept. 1st 1862. It has the vignette of a hornets' nest at center. It bears the hand written signature of  R. G. Lindsey for Public Treasurer It has the hand written serial number 137.  It was produced by. J. T. Paterson Augusta Ga.

This is Criswell NC-149. This is a Plate L banknote for 50 cents issued in Raleigh on Jany 2nd 1864. It has the vignette of a sailing vessel at center. It bears the hand written signature of  W. H. Dodd for Public Treasurer It has the hand written serial number 186.  It was produced by. J. T. Paterson Augusta Ga.

This is Criswell NC-22. This is a Plate A banknote for $2 issued in Raleigh on January 1st 1863. It has the vignette of the State Capitol at center. It bears the hand written signature of  D. W.Bain for Public Treasurer It has the hand written serial number 97.  It was produced by. J. T. Paterson Augusta Ga.

This is Criswell NC-21. This is a Plate A banknote for $2 issued in Raleigh on Oct. 2nd 1861.  It bears the hand written signature of  (indistinct) for Public Treasurer It has the hand written serial number 2304.  It was produced by F. W. Bornemann Charleston SC.

This is Criswell NC-22. This is a Plate E banknote for $2 issued in Raleigh on Oct. 6th 1861.  It bears the hand written signature of  Henry Hardee for Public Treasurer It has the hand written serial number 710.  It was produced by F. W. Bornemann Charleston SC.

This is Criswell NC-123. This is a Plate D banknote for $5 issued in Raleigh on 1st Jany 1863.  It bears the hand written signature of  W. T. Thimble for Comptroller and W. A. Jones for Public Treasurer It has the hand written serial number 236.  It was engraved and lithographed by J. T. Paterson, Augusta Ga

 

 

SOUTH CAROLINA

South Carolina enacted its Ordinance of Secession on December 20 1861 by unanimous vote.

TRhere are no State issues from South Carolina during the War. This is is a 25 cents voice issued by a private institution, the Banok of the State of South Carlina.  It wwas issued on Feb. 1 1863. 

 

 

TEXAS

Texas's Secession Ordinance was passed on February 1 1861 by a vote of 168 to 8. The Ordinance was submitted for popular vote which passed by 46,129 to 16,1`97.

This is Criswell TX-1. This is a Treasury Warrant for Military Service for $1 to J. P. Du..... or Bearer issued in Austin on July 29, 1862.  It has a vignette of a milkmaid at left and it bears the hand written signature of  C. R. Johns for Comptroller. It has the hand written serial number 91595. 

This is Criswell TX-2. This is a Treasury Warrant for Civil Service for $1 to F. R. Lubbock or Bearer issued in Austin on July 7, 1862.  It has a vignette of a milkmaid at left and it bears the hand written signature of  C. R. Johns for Comptroller. It has the hand written serial number 2807.  It was endorsed on the back by C. V. Randolph.

This is Criswell TX-20. This is a Treasury Warrant for Civil Service for $10 to Shelby Co, or Bearer issued in Austin on Feby 9 1865.  It has a vignette of a milkmaid at left and it bears the hand written signature of  W. L. Rolands for Comptroller. It has the hand written serial number 43855.

 

 

VIRGINIA

Virginia voted its Ordinance of Secession on April 17 1861 by a vote of 85 to 55. 

This is Criswell VA-17. This is a Plate D banknote for $1 issued in Richmond on July 21 1862.  It bears the hand written signature of  H. Nelson for Auditor Public Accounts and S. J. Rady for Treasurer It has the hand written serial number 113854.  It was produced  by Hoyer & Ludwig Richd.

This is Criswell VA-8. This is a Plate C banknote for $10 issued in Richmond on Oct 15th 1862.  It bears the hand written signature of  J. O. Chiles for Auditor Public Accounts and G. R. Calvert for Treasurer It has the hand written serial number 6502.  It was produced  by Keatinge & Ball Columbia SC.

 

City of Lynchburg

This is Criswell C-624. This is a  banknote for 50 cents issued in Lynchburg Va on May 1st 1862.  It bears ta hand written signature that is indistinct. for Treasurer It has the hand written serial number 7915

 

City of Portsmouth

This is Criswell C-112. This is a  banknote for 50 cents issued in Portsmouth Va on Oct. 29 1862.  It bears hand written signatures Wm G. Maupin for Treasurer and Geo. M. Bain Jr. for President of Council. It has the hand written serial number 4219.

 

City of Richmond

This is Criswell C-1330. This is a  banknote for 50 cents issued in Richmond Va on April 14th 1862.  It bears the hand written signature D. Lyon. for President of Council. It has the hand written serial number A8373.

 

Corporation of Richmond

This is Criswell C-3203. This is a  banknote for $1 issued in Richmond Va on 19 April 1861.  It bears the hand written signatures T. Lawson Chamberlain and D. J. Saunders. for President. It has the hand written serial number E4565.

 

County of Augusta

This is Criswell C-4001. This is a  banknote for 10 cents issued in Staunton Va on May 25, 1862.  It bears the hand written signatures Wm G. Henell for the Board and the printed name of Robert Guy, Presiding Justice.  It has the hand written serial number 1239.

 

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