In numismatics,  the term "crown" refers to the largest circulation silver coins such as the British One Crown (or 5/), the U.S. silver dollar, or the nineteenth century French 5 francs coins. Generally there coins with diameters of around 35mm or so and they weigh 25 or so grams (around 0.7 troy oz.). Some counties lowered the silver content of their coins to as low as 0.500 fineness. This trend started in the UK in 1920 where previous silver coins were sterling (0.925 fineness). Other Commonwealth countries followed in later years.

Whilst many countries issued these coins even into the 20th century, there are many from the 19th and earlier centuries from very exotic countries or colonies that do not exist today in the same form they did then.  Other interesting ones are included from countries you have no doubt heard of. These coins were coins of the realm up to the mid-1960s when world inflationary economic trends and government spending forced countries to adopt fiat money. Fiat money is that which has no intrinsic value. It is solely reliant on the faith of the issuing government. History is replete with instances where strong countries debased their currency and the citizens paid the piper. This page displays a few of them for numismatists' interest.

Today many countries and bare entities are issuing silver coins, mostly bullion in one ounce size. These coins are minted by various entrepreneurs that contract with the issuing authority to strike the coins. The coins never see the country or locale where they were issued for. Often they commemorate events that have absolutely no connection to the issuing authority. These are called NON CIRCULATING LEGAL TENDER and as such are not considered true coins by real numismatists. Bullion is bullion, so pay bullion prices if you want these but do not pay the sometimes heavy mark-ups applied to these so-called coins!

Thank you to Krause Publications for use of their Standard Catalogs of World Coins for the historical information included below.



The Islamic State of Afghanistan occupies a mountainous region of Southwest Asia. Presently, about a fifth of the total population lives in exile as refugees, (mostly in Pakistan). It is bordered by Iran, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and China's Sinkiang Province. On September 11, 2001, a terrorist attack on the United States, supported by the Taliban, led to retaliatory strikes by the U.S. Military in coalition with Afghans of a Northern Alliance. The Taliban regime was deposed. During a UN-sponsored conference on Afghanistan that was held in Bonn, Germany, in early November 2001, an agreement was reached for an Interim Authority, under the leadership of Hamid Karzai, to be installed in Afghanistan on December 22, 2001 and to hold power for the following four to six months. A 'loya jirga" (Grand Council) then established a Transitional Authority with Hamid Karzai as president to prepare for general elections and a new constitution. The national symbol on most coins of the kingdom is a stylized mosque, within which is seen the mihrab, a niche indicating the direction of Mecca, and the minbar, the pulpit, with a flight of steps leading up to it. Inscriptions in Pashtu were first used under the rebel Habibullah, but did not become standard until 1950. Until 1919, coins were dated by the lunar Islamic Hejira calendar (AH), often with the king's regnal year as a second date. The solar Hejira (SH) calendar was introduced in 1919 (1337 AH, 1298 SH). The rebel Habibullah reinstated lunar Hejira dating (AH 1347-50), but the solar calendar was used thereafter. The solar Hejira year begins on the first day of spring, about March 21. Adding 621 to the SH year yields the AD year in which it begins.

This is a five Rupee coin minted in 1326 AH (1908 AD). This is a rather large coin weighing 45.6 grams with 0.900 fineness.



The Republic of Albania, a Balkan republic bounded by Macedonia, Greece, Montenegro, and the Adriatic Sea. Independence was re-established by revolt in 1912, and the present borders established in 1913 by a conference of European powers, which, in 1914, placed Prince William of Wed on the throne; popular discontent forced his abdication within months. In 1920, following World War I occupancy by several nations, a republic was set up. Ahmed Zogu seized the presidency in 1925, and in 1928 he proclaimed himself king with the title of Zog I. King Zog fled when Italy occupied Albania in 1939 and enthroned King Victor Emanuel of Italy. Upon the surrender of Italy to the Allies in 1943, German troops occupied the country. They withdrew in 1944, and communist partisans seized power, naming Gen. Enver Hoxha provisional president. In 1946, following a victory by the communist front in the 1945 elections, a new constitution modeled on that of the USSR was adopted. In accordance with the constitution of Dec. 28, 1976, the official name of Albania was changed from the Peoples Republic of Albania to the Peoples Socialist Republic of Albania. Albania's former communists were routed in elections. March 1992, amid economic collapse and social unrest, Sali Berisha was elected as the first non-communist president since World War II. Rexhep Mejdani, elected president in 1997, succeeds him.

This coin was issued by Pres. Ahmed Zogu in 1927. It was minted at the Venice Mint in Italy. The denomination is 5 Frangs Ar.  The obverse has the bust and name of Amet Zogu. The reverse has the country's name in Albanian and Italian. It features a farmer with a team of oxen and a plow. The designers names are below the field. TV denotes the Venice Mint, PROVA means proof coin, and the date and denomination. The coin weighs 25 grams and is of 0.900 fineness.



Argentina was discovered In 1516 by the Spanish navigator Juan do Soils. A permanent Spanish colony was established at Buenos Aires In 1580, but the colony developed slowly. When Napoleon conquered Spain, the Argentines set up their own government on May 25, 1810. independence was formally declared on July 9, 1816. A strong tendency toward local autonomy, fostered by difficult transportation, resulted in a federalized union with much authority loft to the states or provinces. Internal conflict through the first halt century of Argentine Independence resulted in a provisional national coinage, chiefly of crown-sized silver. Provincial Issues mainly of minor denominations supplemented this.

This is a one Peso coin minted in 1882. The obverse features Liberty, the denomination, and the fineness ( 9 decimos = 0.900). The designer's name is below the bust. The reverse has the country's name, the national arms, and the date. Weight is 25 grams.



The Commonwealth of Australia is the smallest continent in the world, is located south of Indonesia between the Indian and Pacific oceans. The first Caucasians to see Australia probably were Portuguese and Spanish navigators of the late 16th century. In 1770, Captain James Cook explored the east coast and annexed it for Great Britain. New South Wales was founded as a penal colony, following the loss of British North America, by Captain Arthur Phillip on January 26, 1788, a date now celebrated as Australia Day. Dates of creation of the six colonies that now comprise the states of the Australian Commonwealth are: New South Wales, 1823; Tasmania, 1825; Western Australia, 1838; South Australia, 1842; Victoria, 1851; Queensland, 1859. The British Parliament approved a constitution providing for the federation of the colonies in 1900. The Commonwealth of Australia came into being in 1901. Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act on October 9, 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in external and Internal affairs, thereby formalizing a situation that had existed for years. Australia is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Elizabeth II ia head of State as Queen of Australia. Australia's currency system was changed from Pounds-Shillings-Pence to a decimal system of Dollars and Cents on Feb. 14, 1966.

This is a five Shilling coin minted in 1937. It weighs 28.28 grams of 0,925 fineness.




This 1 Thaler coin  was minted in 1621 in Vienna. The obverse features Emperor Ferdinand II surrounded by the Latin legend FERDINANDVS II D R  I S AVG G HVN BOH REX (Ferdinand II Holy Roman Emperor Augustus Hun(gary) Boh(emia). .. The reverse has the imperial arms encircled by the Latin legend ARCHID AVS DVX BVR CO TYR ZC 19Z1 (Archduke Aus(tria) Earl Bur(gundy) Duke Tyr(ol) rtc.) . Weight is 25.984 grams. 


The Maria Theresia 1780 thaler has been minted from that date to present. Most were minted in Vienna but other mints Birmingham, Bombay, Brussels, London, Paris, Rome and Utrecht also struck them in past years. Currently only Vienna has the right to coin MTTs. The thaler is 39.5-41 mm in diameter and 2.5 mm thick, weighs 28.0668 grams and contains 23.3890 grams (0.752 troy ounces) of 0.833 fine silver. This was a true trade coin in that it was widely accepted in East Africa, the Middle East and even into India. Italy introduced a similar coin in  1918 designed to replace the MTT (see ERITREA for a photo). I bought a well circulated MTT in Hong Kong in 1958 as a young serviceman  on R&R because I was intrigued by the supposed age based on the date 1780.

The inscription on the obverse of this coin is in Latin: M. THERESIA D. G. R. IMP. HU. BO. REG (Maria Theresia, Dei Gratia Romanorum Imperatrix, Hungariae Bohemiaeque Regina or Maria Thereseia by grace of GOD, Roman Empress and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia). ) The reverse reads ARCHID. AVST. DUX BURG. CO. TYR. 1780. It is an abbreviation of Archidux Austriae, Dux Burgundiae, Comes Tyrolis. 1780 X or Archduchess of Austria, Duchess of Burgundy, Countess of Tyrol. 1780". The edge inscription is the motto of her reign JUSTICIA ET CLEMENTIA or Justice and Clemency. This is a modern restrike.


A town on the Austro-Bavarian frontier which grew up around a monastery and bishopric that was founded circa 700. It was raised to the rank of archbishopric in 798. In 1803 Salzburg was secularized and given to an archduke of Austria. In 1803 it was annexed to Austria but years later passed to Bavaria, returning to Austria in 1813. It became a crown land in 1849, remaining so until becoming part of the Austrian Republic in 1918.

This is a one thaler coin issued by the Archbishop of Salzburg. The term dollar is derived from the German world thaler. This coin was struck in 1625 under Archbishop Paris von Lodron. The obverse has the Madonna holding the Christ child above the coat-of-arms. The legend PARIS-D:G:ARCHI EPS-SAL:SE:APL refers to the Archbishop. The reverse has an image of St. Rudpert with the legend SANCT-RVDPER  TVS-EPIS:SALISB and the date of issue 1625. St. Rudpert was an early bishop of Salzburg. The coin weighs 27.8 grams of 0.889 fineness.



The earliest rulers of Baden, in the southwestern part of Germany along the Rhine, descended from the dukes of Zahringen in the late 11th century. The first division of the territory occurred in 1190, when separate lines of margraves were established in Baden and in Hachberg. Immediately prior to its extinction in 1418, Hachberg was sold back to Baden, which underwent several minor divisions itself during the next century. Baden acquired most of the Countship of Sponheim from Electoral Pfalz near the end of the 15th century. In 1515, the most significant division of the patrimony took place, in which the Baden-Baden and Baden-(Pforzheim) Durlach lines were established.

This is an 1876 five mark piece minted at Karlsruhe mintmark G). It features the Grand Duke Friedrich  (1856-1907). The reverse has the German arms. The coin weighs 27.78 grams at 0.900 fineness.

This is an 1913 five mark piece minted at Karlsruhe mintmark G). It features the Grand Duke Friedrich  II. The reverse has the German arms. The coin weighs 27.78 grams at 0.900 fineness.



The Commonwealth of the Bahamas is an archipelago of about 3,000 islands, cays and rocks located in the Atlantic Ocean east of Florida and north of Cuba. The Bahamas were discovered by Columbus October, 1492, upon his sighting of the island of San Salvador, but Spain made no attempt to settle then. British influence began in 1626 when Charles I granted them to the lord proprietors of Carolina, with settlements in 1629 at New Providence by colonists from the northern territory. Although the Bahamas were temporarily under Spanish control in 1641 and 1703, they continued under British proprietors until 1717, when, as the result of political and economic mismanagement, the civil and military governments were surrendered to the King and the islands designated a British Crown Colony. Full international agreement on British possession of the islands resulted from the Treaty of Versailles in 1783. The Bahamas obtained complete internal self-government under the constitution of Jan. 7, 1964. Full independence was achieved on July 10, 1973. The Bahamas is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Elizabeth II is Head of State as Queen of The Bahamas.

This is a ten Dollar coin minted in 1973 to celebrate independence. The obverse has Queen Elizabeth II. The reverse has Columbus' ship the Santa Maria. It is a rather large coin weighing 49.75 grams of 0.925 fineness.



The Balearic Islands, an archipelago located in the Mediterranean Sea off the east coast of Spain including Majorca, Minorca, Cabrera, Ibiza, Formentera and a number of islets. Majorca, largest of the Balearic Islands is famous for its 1,000-year-old olive trees.  The islands were an important trading post in ancient times, being under Greek, Carthaginian, and Roman control at various times. In recent times they are under Spanish authority.

This coin was an emergency issue from the island of Mallorca. The obverse has the date of issue, 1821, the ruler's identity, FRo VII, Fernando VII, and the denomination, 30.SOUS. The reverse has a diamond shaped rendering of the Spanish coat-of-arms with SALUS POPULI (Saviour of the People) below. The coin weighs 26.8 grams at 0.903 fineness.



One of the largest states in Germany, Bavaria was a duchy from earliest times, ruled by the Agliholfingen dynasty from 553 until it was suppressed by Charlemagne in 788. Bavaria remained a territory of the Carolingian Empire from that time until 911, when the son of the Count of Scheyern was made duke and began a new line of rulers there. A number of dukes during the next century and a halt were elected emperor, but when the male line became extinct, Empress Agnes gave Bavaria to the Counts of Nordheim in 1061. His descendant, Heinrich XII the Lion, fell out of favor with the emperor and was deposed. The duchy was then entrusted to Otto VI von Witteisbach, Count of Scheyem and descendant of the counts who had ruled from the early 10th century. Duke Otto I, as he was known from 1180 on, was the ancestor of the dynasty which ruled in Bavaria until 1918 and, from the late 13th century, in the Rhine Palatinate as well. The first of several divisions took place in 1255 when lines In Upper and Lower Bavaria were established. The line in Lower Bavaria became extinct in 1340 and the territory reverted to Upper Bavaria Meanwhile, the division of Upper Bavaria and the Palatinate took place and was confirmed by treaty in 1329, although the electoral vote residing with the Wittelsbachs was to be held jointly by the two branches. In 1347, Bavaria and all other holdings of the family in Brandenburg, the Tyrol and Holland were divided among six brothers. Munich had become the chief city of the duchy by this time. In 1475, Duke Stephen I, who had reunited most of the family's holdings in Bavaria, died and left three sons who promptly divided their patrimony once again. The lines of lngolstadt, Landshut and Munich were founded, but as the other lines died out, the one seated in Munich regained control of all of Bavaria. Duke Albrecht IV Instituted primogeniture in 1506 and from that time on, Bavaria remained united. When Elector Friedrich V of the Palatinate (Pfalz) was elected King of Bohemia In 1618, an event which helped precipitate the Thirty Years' War, Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria sided with the emperor against his kinsman. The electoral dignity had been given to the Pfalz branch of the Witteisbactis by the Golden Bull of 1356, a fact which was a source of contention with the Bavarian branch of the family. With the ouster of Friedrich V, Maximilian I obtained the electoral right and control of the Palatinate in 1623, then also ruled over the Upper Palatinate (Oberpfalz) from 1628 until the conclusion of the war and the Peace of Westphalia. The Bavarian Wit-teisbactis became extinct in 1777 and the line in Electoral Pfalz acquired Bavaria, thus uniting the two main territories of the dynasty under a single ruler for the first time since the early 14th century. When Napoleon abolished the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, bringing an end to the electoral system, the ruler of Bavaria was raised to the rank of king. The 19th century saw tragedy upon tragedy visit the royal family. Because of his opposition to the parliamentary reform movement, Ludwig I was forced to abdicate in 1848. His grandson, Ludwig ii, inspired by his upbringing to spend his fortune building the fairytale castle of Neusthwanstein, was forcibly removed by court nobles and died under mysterious circumstances in 1886. His younger brother, Otto, was declared Insane and the kingdom was ruled by his uncle, the beloved Prince Luitpold, as prince regent. Ludwig ii, the last King of Bavaria, was forced to abdicate at the end of World War I.

This is an one Thaler piece minted in 1797. The obverse has Elector Karl Theodore with is titles CAR. TH. D. G. C. P. R. V. B. D. S. R. I. A. &. EL. D. I. C. &. M.  The reverse has the Virgin Mary and baby Jesus with the Latin legend PATRONA BAVARIAE with the date 1797. Weighs 38 grams of 0.833 fineness.


This is an  one Krone coin minted in 1815. The obverse has King Maximilian Joseph I with the Latin legend MAXIMILIANUS JOSEPHUS BAVARIAE REX. The reverse has a crowned crossed sword and scepter with the Latin legend PRO DEO ET POPULO and the date 1815. Weighs 29.34 grams of 0.868 fineness.

This is a five mark coin issued under King Ludwig II (the "Mad King Ludwiig") in 1876. It was minted a Munich (mintmark D). The reverse has the German coat-of--arms. Weighs 27.78 grams of 0,900 fineness.

This five mark coin was issued to commemorate the 90th birthday of Regent Prince Luitpold in 1911. It was minted at the Munich Mint (mintmark D). The reverse has the German coat-of--arms. Weighs 27.78 grams of 0,900 fineness.

This five mark coin was issued in 1904. The obverse has Otto I King of Bavaria. It was minted at the Munich Mint (mintmark D). The reverse has the German coat-of--arms. Weighs 27.78 grams of 0,900 fineness.

This five mark coin was issued in 1914. The obverse has Ludwig III King of Bavaria. It was minted at the Munich Mint (mintmark D). The reverse has the German coat-of--arms. Weighs 27.78 grams of 0,900 fineness.




The Kingdom of Belgium is a constitutional monarchy in northwest Europe. The Celtic tribe called Belgae from which Belgium derived its name, was described by Caesar as the most courageous of all the tribes of Gaul. The Belgae eventually capitulated to Rome and the area remained for centuries as a part of the Roman Empire known as Belgica. The eastern part of today's Belgium lies in the Duchy of Lower Lorraine while much of the western parts eventually became the County of Flanders. After further divisions the area came under the control of the Duke of Burgundy from whence it passed under Hapsburg control. Charles and Ferdinand, sons of Philip and Johanna, began the separate Spanish and Austrian lines of the Hapsburg family. The Burgundian lands, along with the northern provinces that make up present day Netherlands, became the Spanish Netherlands. The northern provinces successfully rebelled and broke away from Hapsburg rule in the late 16th century and early 17th century. The southern provinces along with the Duchy of Luxembourg remained under the influence of Spain until the year 1700 when Charles II, last of the Spanish Hapsburg line, died without leaving an heir and the Spanish crown went to the Bourbon family of France. The Spanish Netherlands then reverted to the control of the Austrian line of Hapsburgs and became the Austrian Netherlands. The Austrian Netherlands along with the Bishopric of Liege fall to the French Republic in 1794. At the Congress of Vienna in 1815 the area was reunited with the Netherlands, but in 1830 independence was gained and the constitutional monarchy of Belgium was established. A large part of the Duchy of Luxembourg was incorporated into Belgium and the first king was Leopold I of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.

This is a five Francs coin minted in 1833 . The coin depicts King Leopold I. It weighs 25 grams with 0.900 fineness.



The Parliamentary British Colony of Bermuda is situated in the western Atlantic Ocean 660 miles (1,062 km.) east of North Carolina. The British monarch is the head of state and is represented by a governor. Bermuda was discovered by Juan de Bermudez, a Spanish navigator, in about 1503. British influence dates from 1609 when a group of Virginia-bound British colonists under the command of Sir George Somers was shipwrecked on the islands for 10 months. The islands were settled in 1612 by 60 British colonists from the Virginia Colony and became a crown colony in 1684. The earliest coins issued for the island were the "Hogge Money" series of 2,3,6 and 12 pence, the name derived from the pig in the obverse design, a recognition of the quantity of such animals then found there. The next issue for Bermuda was the Birmingham coppers of 1793; all locally circulating coinage was demonetized in 1842, when the currency of the United Kingdom became standard. Internal autonomy was obtained by the constitution of June 8, 1968.

This is an one Crown (five shillings) piece minted in 1959 to celebrate the 350th anniversary of discovery. The obverse has Queen Elizabeth II. The reverse has a map of the island with a the ships Deliverance and Patience. The coin weighs 28.28 grams at 0.925 fineness.



Bolivia is a landlocked country in west central South America. Much of present day Bolivia was first dominated by the Tiahuanaco Culture ca.400 BC. It had in turn been incorporated into the Inca Empire by 1440AD prior to the arrival of the Spanish, in 1535, who reduced the Indian population to virtual slavery. When Joseph Napoleon was placed upon the throne of occupied Spain in 1809, a fervor of revolutionary activity quickened throughout Alto Peru - culminating in the 1809 Proclamation of Liberty. Sixteen bloody years of struggle ensued before the republic, named for the famed liberator Simon Bolivar, was established on August 6, 1825. Since then Bolivia has survived more than 16 constitutions, 78 Presidents, 3 military juntas and over 160 revolutions.

The Imperial City of Potosi, founded by Villarroel in 1546, was established in the midst of what is estimated to have been the world's richest silver mines (having produced in excess of 2 billion dollars worth of silver). The first mint, early in 1574, used equipment brought over from Lima. Before that it had been used at La Plata where the operation failed. The oldest type was a cob with the Hapsburg arms on the obverse and cross with quartered castles and lions on the reverse. To the heraldic right of the shield (at the left as one faces it) is a 'v" and, under it, the assayers initial, although in some early examples the P" and assayer can appear to the right of the shield. While production at the "Casa de Moneda" was enormous, the quality of the coinage was at times so poor that some 50 were condemned to death by their superiors.

Therefore, by royal decree of February 17, 1651, the design was changed to the quartered castles and lions for the obverse and two crowned pillars of Hercules floating above the was of the sea for the reverse. A new transitional series was introduced in 1651-1652 followed by a new standard design in 1652 and as the last cob type continued on for several years along with the milled pillars and bust pieces from 1767 through 1773. In the final years under Charles Ill the planchet is compact and dumpy, very irregular and of poor style, contrasting sharply with their counterpart denominations of the pillar and bust types.  Most pre-decimal coinage of independent Bolivia carries the assayers' initials on the reverse near the rim to the left of the date, in 4 to 5 o'clock position. The mint mark or name appears in the 7 to 8 o'clock area.

This is a Spanish 8 reales cob issued from Potosi under mint assayer E  (Antonio de Ergueta) in 1651. The coin is counterstamped with a crowned F in a beaded circle to revalue the coin to 7½ reales. This coin was recovered from the wreck of the Jesus Maria de la Concepcion from Chantilly Reef, Ecuador in 1654. Problems with debasement of the coinage struck at Potosi in the 1620s-1640s prompted a visit by the Royal Inspector Don Francisco de Nestares Marin, under orders by King Philip IV of Spain, at the end of 1648. Upon completion of the investigation, the order was given in October of 1650 to recall all coinage minted at Potosi since 1625 and prior to the accession of Juan Rodriguez de Rodas (assayer 0 with dot in middle) to the post of assayer in 1649. All half, 1, and 2 Reales, as well as any 4 and 8 Reales that were found to be heavily debased, were ordered to be melted, with all 4 Reales devalued to 3 Reales and 8 Reales devalued to 6 Reales. To differentiate the good new coinage from 1649 until a completely new design could be implemented in 1652, various countermarks were applied on the 4 and 8 Reales to reflect their higher net values of 3-3/4 Reales and 7-1/2 Reales respectively. Most of these countermarks bear a crown at the top, with either an initial or monogram or symbol below, all contained within a beaded circle (most common) or simple circle (single line, no beads) or beaded pentagon (rare) or no border (rarest). It is believed that each different countermark was applied in a different location within the Spanish colonies, but it is not known which countermark corresponds to which locale. The coin weighs 27 grams of 0.859 fineness (normal fineness was 0.931).

This is an 1824 eight reales coin minted at San Luis Potosi. It was the second to the last year of coinage under Spain. The obverse has Fredinand VII. The reverse has the Spanish arms with the assayers' initials P J for Pedro Martin de Albizu and Juan Palomo y Sierra. It weighs 27 grams of 0.896 fineness.

This is a Bolivian post-independence eight Soles coin minted at San Luis Potosi in 1829. The obverse has Gen. Simon Bolivar, for whom the country was named. The reverse has two llamas reclining under a tree with the assayers'  initials J.M for Juan Palomo y Sierra and Diego Miguel Lopez. It weighs 27 grams of 0.903 fineness.



Pope Alexander VI issued a decree in 1494 that divided the New World between Spain and Portugal generally based on 270 leagues (032 miles) west of the Azores or Cape Verde islands. Brazil was a Portuguese colony until 1822.  Brazil was discovered and claimed for Portugal by Admiral Pedro Alvares Cabral in 1500. Portugal established a settlement in 1532 and proclaimed the area a royal colony in 1549. During the Napoleonic Wars, Dom Joao VI established the seat of Portuguese government in Rio de Janeiro. When he returned to Portugal, his son Dom Pedro I declared Brazil's independence on Sept. 7 1822, and became emperor of Brazil. The Empire of Brazil was maintained until 1889 when the federal republic was established.


This Brazilian 960 Reis coin was struck over a Spanish 8 Reales piece originally minted in Lima Peru in 1816. Most of these pieces were struck over Spanish colonial and domestic minted coins as well as ex-colonies after their independence. This one was minted in  Bahia in 1817. You will note that the reverse shows much detail from the original coin, particularly in the triangles off the orb. The silver value of the Spanish coin was 750-800 Reis so the authorities made a good profit with this mintage. The obverse legend reads JOANNES DG PORT REGENS ET BRAS D. The reverse legend has SUBQ SIGN NATA STAB. It weighs 27 grams of 0.896 fineness.


This is Spanish colonial 8 Reales piece that was minted in 1804 in San Luis Potosi in then Peru but in today's Bolivia. These coins were officially counterstamped in the state of Minas Gerais with dies having the arms and 960 on the obverse and the Brazilian orb on the reverse. It weighs 27 grams of 0.896 fineness.


This Brazilian 960 Reis coin was struck over a Chilean Independence 8 Reales piece. Most of these pieces were struck over Spanish colonial and domestic minted coins as well as ex-colonies after their independence. This one was minted in  Rio de Janeiro in 1825.  The silver value of the Spanish coin was 750-800 Reis so the authorities made a good profit with this mintage. The obverse legend has IN+HOC+SIGNO+VINCES surrounding the Imperial arms. The reverse legend reads PETRUS II.D.G.CONST.IMP.ET PERP.BRAS.DEF. It weighs 27 grams of 0.896 fineness.

This Brazilian 2000 Reis coin was struck in     851. The obverse has the Imperial arms. The reverse has the denomination within a wreath encircled by PETRUS II.D.G.CONST.IMP.ET PERP.BRAS.DEF. and the date 1851. Weighs 25.5 grams of 0.917 fineness.



Established at about the same time as the bishopric in 787, Bremen was under the control of the bishops and archbishops until Joining the Hanseatic League in 1276. Archbishop Albrecht II granted the mint right to the city in 1369, but this was not formalized by imperial decree until 1541. In 1646, Bremen was raised to free imperial status and continued to strike its own coins into the early 20th century. The city lost its free imperial status in 1803 and was controlled by France from 1806 until 1813. Regaining it independence in 1815, Bremen joined the North German Confederation in 1867 and the German Empire in 1871. Since 1369, there was practically continuous coinage until 1907.

A bishopric was established at the present site of Bremen by S. Wilhad in 787. When the Norse destroyed Hamburg in 848, the archbishop of that city transferred his see to Bremen. Eventually, the connection between the two waned and Bremen remained the self an archbishop, which obtained the mint right as early as 888. During the 11th century, this right was extended to allow mints to be established in various towns under Bremen's control. The Protestant Reformation overtook Bremen in 1522, although Catholic episcopal princes attempted to maintain Rome's influence there. At the start of the Thirty Years' War in 1618, however, Protestantism was firmly entrenched in Bremen. The last archbishop was driven from his see by the Swedes in 1644 and Bremen was joined to Verden as a secular duchy. This arrangement was confirmed by the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.

Bremen like most other German States retained their hereditary royal families as rulers and issued separate silver and gold coinage in denomination of 2, 3, 5, 10, and 20 Marks until the end of World War I.

This is a Thaler coin minted by the independent republic of Bremen in 1650. The obverse has the imperial crowned eagle with FERDIN:III:D:G:ROM:IMP:SEM:AUGUS: (Ferdinand III  by Grace of God Holy Roman Emperor). Mintage was a mere 1627. The reverse has the coat-of-arms of the city with the date 1650 and T.I. (denoting Mintmaster Thomas Isenbein) within the inner circle. The outer ring has MON: NOVA: ARG: REIPUB: BREMENISIS (new silver money of the Bremen Republic).  It weighs 29 grams of 0.889 fineness



The Virgin Islands were discovered by Columbus in 1493, and named by him, Las Virgienes, in honor of St. Ursula and her companions. The British Virgin Islands were formerly part of the administration of the Leeward Islands but received a separate administration as a Crown Colony in 1950. A new constitution promulgated in 1967 provided for a ministerial form of government headed by the Governor. The Government of the British Virgin Islands issued the first official coinage in its history on June 30, 1973, in honor of 300 years of constitutional government in the islands. 

This one dollar coin was issued in 1985. The obverse has Queen  Elizabeth. The reverse has tropical fishes. Weighs 24.74 grams of 0.925 fineness



Burma, a country of Southeast Asia fronting on the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. The first European to reach Burma, in about 1435, was Nicolo Di Conti, a Venetian merchant. During the beginning of the reign of Bodawpaya (1781-1819AD) the kingdom comprised most of the same area as it does today including Arakan which was taken over in 1784-85. The British East India Company, while unsuccessful in its 1612 effort to establish posts along the Bay of Bengal, was enabled by the Anglo-Burmese Wars of 1824-86 to expand to the whole of Burma and to secure its annexation to British India.

The coins issued by kings Mindon and Thibaw between 1852 and 1885 circulated in Upper Burma. Indian coins were current in Lower Burma, which was annexed in 1852. Burmese coins are frequently known by the equivalent Indian denominations, although their values are inscribed in Burmese units. Upper Burma was annexed in 1885 and the Burmese coinage remained in circulation until 1889, when Indian coins became current throughout Burma. Coins were again issued in the old Burmese denominations after independence in 1948, but these were replaced by decimal issues in 1952. The Chula-Sakarat (CS) dating is sometimes referred to as BE-Burmese Era and began in 638AD.

Later years it became a recluse nation under dictatorships but recently has opened up.

This is a 1 Kyat piece (equal to 1 Indian Rupee). It is dated 1214 CE (Chula-Sakarat). It is not technically a crown in that it only weighs 11 grams of 0.917 fineness but it is the largest denomination of an early Burmese silver coin.



The Central American Republic (Provincias Unidas del Centro de America, Republic of the United States of Central America, Central American Confederation) was an 1823-39 confederation of the former provinces of the Captaincy General of Guatemala - Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica - formed from the southernmost provinces of the short-lived Mexican empire of Augustin de Iturbide. The confederation, which included all Central America between Mexico and Panama, had a population of fewer than 1.5 million.

On Sept. 15, 1821, the leaders of the Captaincy General that governed the five provinces of Central America for Spain, declared Central America independent. The following year, Iturbide crowned himself Augustin I of Mexico and invited the Central Americans to join his empire. Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica did so. El Salvador, which desired to become a part of the United States, refused and was invaded and conquered for Mexico by Vicente Rlisola, the military governor Iturbide had sent to Guatemala. But almost before El Salvador had been forced into the Mexican empire, Iturbide was ousted. Rlisola then reconvened the National Constituent Assembly that had been established by the Central American declaration of independence of 1821. On July 1, 1823, the Assembly issued a second declaration of independence, from Mexico as well as Spain, and established the Central American Republic.
Historically the confederation, which lasted 15 years, was an anomaly for a government: It had neither permanent capital, army nor treasury and was all but powerless to raise funds. Its written constitution, was as unsatisfactory as the first constitution of the United States, the Articles of Confederation.

Divided by geography as well as religious and class animosity the citizens of the Republic had no sense of nationhood. By 1827 the entire Republic was embroiled in civil war. By 1839 every state but El Salvador had seceded from the union; interestingly, Costa Rica, Guatemala and Honduras continued to strike coins in the confederation style - until 1850, 1851 and 1861, respectively. Costa Rica then countermarked many coins of this series for continued circulation within its boundaries.

This is an 8 Reales piece minted in Guatemala in 1836. The obverse has the logo of the republic with the legend REPUBLICA DEL CENTRO DE AMERICA 1836. The reverse has a tree flanked by the denomination  8 . R. surrounded by the legend LIBRA CRESCA BEGUNDO - NG - M -10Ds20 Gs. The NG denotes the Guatemala City Mint and the M the mintmaster's name (Manuel Eusabio Sanchez). The coin weighs 27 grams of 0.903 fineness.



The earliest known inhabitants of Ceylon. the Veddahs, were subjugated by the Sinhalese from northern India in the 6th century B.C. Sinhalese rule was maintained until 1408, alter which the island was controlled by China for 30 years. The Portuguese came to Ceylon in 1505 and maintained control of the coastal area for 150 years. The Dutch supplanted them In 1658, which were in turn supplanted by the British who seized the Dutch colonies in 1796, and made them a Crown Colony in 1802. In 1815, the British conquered the independent Kingdom of Kandy in the central part of the island. Constitutional changes in 1931 and 1946 granted the Ceylonese a measure of autonomy and a parliamentary form of government. Britain granted Ceylon independence as a self-governing state within the British Commonwealth on Feb. 4, 1948. On May 22, 1972, the Ceylonese adopted a new Constitution, which declared Ceylon to be the Republic of Sri Lanka —'Resplendent Island'

This is a 5 Rupee coin minted in 1957. It celebrates the 3500th anniversary of Buddhism. The coin weighs 28 grams of 0.925 finesness.



The Republic of Chile is a ribbon-like country on the Pacific coast of southern South America. Diego de Almargo was the first Spaniard to attempt to wrest Chile from the Incas and Araucanian tribes in 1536. He failed, and was followed by Pedro de Valdivia, a favorite of Pizarro, who founded Santiago in 1541. When the Napoleonic Wars involved Spain, leaving the constituent parts of the Spanish Empire to their own devices, Chilean patriots formed a national government and proclaimed the country's independence, Sept. 18, 1810. Independence however, was not secured until Feb. 12, 1818, after a bitter struggle led by Bernardo O'Higgins and San Martin. Despite a long steady history of monetary devaluation, reflected in declining weight and fineness in its currency, Chile developed a strong democracy. This was displaced when rampant inflation characterized chaotic and subsequently repressive governments in the mid to late 20th century.

This is an emergency 1 Peso coin struck in Copiapo during the 1859 revolution, The coin  is simple, an inverted Chilean coat-of-arms with the denomination I.P below. They were struck by Don Pedro Leon Gallo. Weight is 22 grams of 0.970 fineness.

This is an one Peso coin minted in 1879 at Santiago. The obverse has Chile's arms. The reverse has an eagle with the motto For the Reason or the Force. The coin weighs 25 grams at 0.900 fineness.



Before 1912, China was ruled by an imperial government. The republican administration which replaced it in 1910 was itself supplanted on the Chinese mainland by a communist government in 1949, but a Nationalist government has remained in control of Taiwan and other offshore islands in the China Sea.

Cast coins in base metals were used in China many centuries before the Christian era, but locally struck coinages of the western type in gold, silver, copper and other metals did not appear until 1888. In spite of the relatively short time that modern coins have been in use, the number of varieties is exceptionally large.

Both Nationalist and Communist China, as well as the prerevolutionary Imperial government and numerous provincial or other agencies, including some foreign-administered agencies and governments, have issued coins in China. Most of these have been in dollar (yuan) or dollar-fraction denominations, based on the internationally used dollar system, but coins in tael denominations were issued in the 1920's and earlier. The striking of coins nearly ceased in the late 1930's through the 1940's due to the war effort and a period of uncontrollable inflation while vast amounts of paper currency were issued by the Nationalist, Communist and Japanese occupation institutions.

Imperial silver coins normally bore no denomination, but were inscribed with their weights as follows:

  • 1 Dollar = 7 Mace and 2 Candareens, 26.869

  • 50 Cents = 3 Mace and 6 Candareens, 13.439

  • 20 Cents = I Mace and 4.4 Candareens, 5.37 9

  • 10 Cents = 7.2 Candareens, 2.68 g

  • 5 Cents = 3.6 Candareens, 1.34 g

Republic coinage is generally in Yuan (dollar), though Sinkiang Province used Sar (which was a Tael or 1.124 troy oz).

This is a one Dollar coin issued in 1927 in commemoration of the founding of the Chinese Republic. The obverse features Dr. Sun Yat Sen, credited as the founder of the Republic. Weighs 25.7 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is an example of foreign silver coinage that saw circulation in Imperial China. It is called a Spanish Milled Dollar and was minted in Mexico City in 1762 These coins were exported to the Far East. The Chinese characters stamped on the coin are individual merchants' chops to attest that the coin met the fineness and weight standards. Many different foreign silver crowns were used and marked this way though most are Spanish colonial pieces from the American mints. Weighs 27 grams of 0.917 fineness.

Provincial Coinage

The Empire central authority did not issue crowns per se. Coinage was left to the individual provinces. These crowns for the most part were denominated in the weight counting system made of 7 Mace and 2 Candareens.


This coin was struck at the Pei Yang Arsenal in Tientsin in 1908. The coin was minted in the 34th year of the reign of Emperor Kuang Hsu. Chihli  (or Hopei) province is now known in Pinyan as Hebei province and is in northeast China. Weighs 26.7 grams of 0.900 fineness.


This coin was minted in 1900. The coin has merchant chop marks on both sides signifying the value of the coin. Hupeh Province is now known as Hubei Province and is located in central China. Weighs 26.7 grams of 0.900 fineness.


This coin was minted in 1898 in Kiangnan Province is now known as Jiangnan district and is located in east central China. Weighs 26.7 grams of 0.900 fineness.


This coin was struck in the province of Kwangtung around 1890. Kwangtung is now known as Guangdong Province and is in southeast China. Weighs 26.7 grams of 0.900 fineness.


This is an one Sar coin minted in 1918. The reverse has an Arabic legend as the area is heavily Uighar Mohammedan. Sinkiang province is now known as Xinjiang-Uygur Province is located in extreme west central China. Weighs 35.5 grams of 0.900 fineness.


This coin was an imperial issue minted in the c1901-1908 period. Szechuan Province is now known as Sichuan Province and is located in south central China. Weighs 26.7 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is a Chinese one dollar coin minted for Szechuan province by the Republic authorities in 1912. Weighs 26.7 grams of 0.900 fineness.


This coin was struck in the province of Yunnan by the Empire authorities around 1909. Yunnan Province is in extreme south central China. Weighs 26.7 grams of 0.900 fineness.



The Republic of Colombia is in the northwestern corner of South America. The northern coast of present Colombia was one of the first parts of the American continent to be visited by Spanish navigators. At Darien in Panama is the site of the first permanent European settlement on the American mainland in 1510. New Granada, as Colombia was known until 1861, stemmed from the settlement of Santa Marta in 1525. New Granada was established as a Spanish colony in 1549. Independence was declared in 1810, and secured in 1819 when Simon Bolivar united Colombia, Venezuela, Panama and Ecuador as the Republic of Gran Colombia. Venezuela withdrew from the Republic in 1829; Ecuador in 1830; and Panama in 1903.

This is an eight Reales coin dated 1821 was minyedin the province of Cundimarca.  The obverse has an Indian's head. The reverse has a pomegranate. Weighs 23 grams of 0.666 fineness.



Comoros, a volcanic archipelago located in the Mozambique Channel of the Indian Ocean 200 miles (482 km.) northwest of Madagascar. Ancient Phoenician traders were probably the first visitors to the Comoro Islands, but the first detailed knowledge of the area was gathered by Arab sailors. Arab dominion and culture were firmly established when the Portuguese. Dutch. and French arrived in the 16' century. In 1842 a Malagasy ruler ceded the island of Mayotte to France; the other three principal islands of the archipelago-Anjouan. Moheli. and Grand Comore came under French, protection in 1886. The islands were joined administratively with Madagascar in 1912.The Comoros became partially autonomous, with the status of a French overseas territory, is 1946, and achieved complete internal autonomy in 1961. On Dec. 21, 1976, after 133 years of French association. the Comoro Islands became the independent Republic of the Comoros.

Mayotte retained the option of determining its future ties and in 1976 voted to remain French. Its present status is that of a French Territorial Collectivity. French currency now circulates there.

This is a 5 Francs coin struck in Paris for the Comoro Islands. The obverse has the crossed flags of France and the Sultanate of the Comoros. The legends are all in Arabic. The coin is dated 1308 AH (1890 AD). Mintage was 2050. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.



This entity is now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo. From 1908 to 1960, the year of independence, it was known as the colony of the Belgian Congo. After 1960 it was wracked by violence from the Congolese leader Patrice Lumumba, a communist, who tried to ally it with the Soviets. Katanga was a breakaway province led by a pro-Western leader Moises Tshombe who was killed in an aircraft "accident."

In ancient times the territory was occupied by Negrito peoples (Pygmies) pushed into the mountains by Bantu and Nilotic invaders. The interior was first explored by the American correspondent Henry Stanley, who was subsequently commissioned by King Leopold ii of Belgium to conclude development treaties with the local chiefs. The Berlin conference of 1885 awarded the area to Leopold, who administered and exploited it as his private property until it was annexed to Belgium in 1908.


The State struck coinage from 1887 to 1896 encompassing the denominations from 1 centime to 5 Francs. The 5 Franc crowns were struck from 1887 to 1896 in limited numbers. This particular coin is an 1896 struck from a die that had been used in 1894 and was recut with the last digit in the date. It is the rarest of the State's coins. The obverse has Leopold's bust facing left with his titles LEOPOLD II R.D.BELGES SOUV.DE LA'ETAT INDEP. DU CONGO (Leopold II, King of the Belgians Sovereign of the Independent State of Congo) and the designer's name L. WEINER below the bust.  The reverse has the State's seal with the denomination 5 FRANCS at the top and the date 1896 at the bottom. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.



Cook Islands is a self-governing dependency of New Zealand consisting of 15 islands, is located in the South Pacific Ocean about 2,000 miles (3,218 km.) northeast of New Zealand. Spanish navigator Alvaro de Mendada first sighted the islands in 1595. Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Quieis landed on Rakahanga in 1606. English navigator Capt. James Cook sailed to the islands on three occasions: 1773, 1774 and 1777. He named them Hervey Islands, in honor of Augustus John Hervey, a lord of the Admiralty. The islands were declared a British protectorate in 1888, and were annexed to New Zealand in 1901. They were granted internal self-government in 1965. New Zealand provides an annual subsidy and retains responsibility for defense and foreign affairs.

This is an unusual denomination coin, seven and one half Dollars. It was minted in 1973 to honor the bicentenary of Capt. Cook's naming of Hervey Islands. Weighs 33.8 grams of 0.925 fineness.




The Island of Crete located 60 miles southeast of the Peloponnesus, was the center of a brilliant Minoan civilization that flourished before the advent of Greek culture. Alter being conquered by the Romans, Byzantines, Moslems and Venetians, Crete became part of the Turkish Empire In 1669. As a consequence of the Greek Revolution of the1820s, It was ceded to Egypt/ Egypt returned the Island to the Turks In 1840, and they ceded It to Greece In 1913, after the Second Balkan War.

This is 5 Drachma piece issued for Crete by the Greeks in 1901 (the special coinage was only minted in 1900 and 1901). The obverse pictures Greek King George/The reverse has the Greek coat-of-arms and the legend ΚPΗΤΙΚΗ ΠΟΛΙΤΕΙΑ (Crete State). Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.



Discovered by Columbus in 1492 and settled by Diego Velasquez in the early 1500s, Cuba remained a Spanish possession until 1898, except for a brief British occupancy of Havana in 1762-63. Cuban attempts to gain freedom were crushed, even while Spain was granting independence to its other American possessions. Ten years of warfare, 1868-78, between Spanish troops and Cuban rebels exacted guarantees of rights which were never implemented. The final revolt, begun in 1895, evoked American sympathy, and with the aid of U.S. troops independence was proclaimed on May 20, 1902. Fulgencio Batista seized the government in 1952 and established a dictatorship. Opposition to Batista, led by Fidel Castro, drove him into exile on Jan. 1, 1959. A communist-type, 25-member collective leadership headed by Castro was inaugurated in March, 1962.

This is a one Peso coin minted in Philadelphia in 1915. It was the first year if Cuban coinage. These are known as Star Pesos. The reverse has the Cuban arms. Weighs 26.7 grams of 0.900 fineness.



The island of Curaçao, the largest of the six islands that made up the Netherlands Antilles, is a country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands located in the Caribbean Sea 40 miles off the coast of Venezuela. Curaçao was discovered by Spanish navigator Alonsode Ojeda in 1499 and was settled by Spain in 1527. The Dutch West India Company took the Island from Spain in 1634 and administered it until 1787 when it was surrendered to the United Netherlands. The Dutch held it thereafter except for two periods during the Napoleonic Wars, 1800-1803 and 1807-16, when it was occupied by the British. During World War II, Curaçao refined 60 percent of the oil used by the Allies; the refineries were protected by U.S. troops after Germany invaded the Netherlands in 1940.

This is a 2½ Guilder (or Florin) coin minted at the U.S. Denver Mint in 1944 while The Netherlands were occupied by he Germans during World War II. Obverse has Queen Wilhelmina and reverse has the Dutch arms. Weighs 25 grams of 0.720 fineness.



The island of Cyprus lies in the eastern Mediterranean Sea 44 miles (71 km.) south of Turkey and 60 miles (97 km.) off the Syrian coast. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. The importance of Cyprus dates from the Bronze Age when it was desired as a principal source of copper (from which the Island derived its name) and as a strategic trading center. it was during this period that large numbers of Greeks settled on the Island and gave it the predominantly Greek character. its role as an international marketplace made it a prime disseminator of the then prevalent cultures, a role that still influences the civilization of Western man. Because of its fortuitous position and influential role, Cyprus was conquered by a succession of empires: the Assyrian, Egyptian, Persian, Macedonian, Ptolemaic, Roman and Byzantine. it was taken from Isaac Comnenus by Richard the Lion-Heart in 1191, sold to the Templar Knights and for the following 7 centuries was ruled by the Franks, the Venetians and the Ottomans. During the Ottoman period Cyprus acquired its lUrkish community (18 percent of its population), in 1878 the Island fell to the British.

This coin has an unusual denomination, 45 Piastres (45 piastres being equal to 5 shillings, or crown). Obverse has King George V and reverse two rampant lions. Weighs 28.28 grams of 0.925 fineness.



Danzig is an important seaport on the northern coast of Poland with access to the Baltic Sea. It has at different times belonged to the Teutonic Knights, Pomerania, Russia, and Prussia. It was part of the Polish Kingdom from 1587-1772. Danzig (Gdansk) was a free city from 1919 to 1939 during which most of its modern coinage was made.

Today it is part of Poland, the city is Gdansk, and it was the home of the Solidarity Movement which troppled communist rule of Poland.

This is the 5 Gulden piece minted in 1823 in silver. Later in 1935 it was struck in nickel. The obverse has FREI STADT DANZIG * FÜNF GULDEN * 1923. The reverse has the city's arms. Weighs 25 grams of 0.750 fineness.



The southernmost and smallest of the Nordic countries, it is south-west of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. The Kingdom of Denmark is a sovereign state that comprises Denmark proper and two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 square kilometres (16,573 sq mi), and a population of 5.7 million. The country consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and an archipelago of 443 named islands, of which around 70 are inhabited, with Zealand, the largest and featuring the capital and largest city Copenhagen. The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate.

The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark, Sweden and Norway were ruled together under the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523. Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until outside forces dissolved the union in 1814. The deterioration of the Kingdom of Norway, caused by the Black Death, made it possible for Denmark to inherit an expansive colonial empire from this union—of which the Faroe Islands and Greenland are remnants. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several cessions of territory; these culminated in the 1830s with a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945.

The Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy which had begun in 1660. It establishes a constitutional monarchy—the current monarch is Queen Margrethe II—organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city and main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948; in Greenland home rule was established in 1979 and further autonomy in 2009.

This is a Danish one Species Dalar minted at the Alltona mint in 1847. The obverse has King. Christian VIII. The reverse has the arms of Denmark with thec denomination above and the date 1847 with the mintmark (orb) at the left and the mintmaster's initials FF at the right. Weighs 28.8 grams.



The Dominican Republic occupies the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola. Columbus discovered Hispaniola in 1492, and named It La Isla Española - the Spanish Island! Santo Domingo, the oldest white settlement in the Western Hemisphere, was the base from which Spain conducted its exploration of the New World. Later, French buccaneers settled the western third of Hispaniola, naming the colony St. Dominique, which in 1697, was ceded to France by Spain. In 1804, following a bloody revolt by former slaves, the French colony became the Republic of Haiti - mountainous country. The Spanish called their part of Hispaniola Santo Domingo. In 1822, the Haitians conquered the entire island and held it until 1844, when Juan Pablo Duarte, the national hero of the Dominican Republic, drove them out of Santo Domingo and established an independent Dominican Republic. The republic returned voluntarily to Spanish dominion from 1861 to 1865, alter being rejected by France, Britain and the United States. Independence was reclaimed in 1866.

This is a one Peso coin minted in 1955. It was issued to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the era of Trujillo. Gen. RafaelTrujillo was dictator from 1940. He renamed Santo Domingo as Cuidad Trujillo - Trujillo City. He was assassinated in 1961. Weighs 26.7 grams of 0.900 fineness.



Ecuador was first sighted in 1526 by Francisco Pizarro. Conquest was undertaken by Sebastian do Benaicazar, who founded Quito in 1534. Ecuador was part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada through the 16th and 17th centuries. After previous attempts to attain independence were crushed, Antonio Sucre, the able lieutenant of Bolivar, secured Ecuador freedom in the Battle of Pinchincha, May 24, 1822. it then Joined Venezuela and Colombia in a confederation known as Gran Colombia, and became an independent republic when it left the confederacy In 1830.


This is an one Sucre piece minted in 1884 at the Heaton Mint in Birmingham England. The overse has Antonio Sucre and the reverse, like many Ibero-American coins, has the coin's weight (25 grams) and the lawful fineness (in this case, 900/1000 fine).



Egyptian history dates back to about 3000 B.C. when the empire was established by uniting the upper and lower kingdoms. Following its 'Golden Age' (16th to 13th centuries B.C.), Egypt was conquered by Persia (525 B.C.) and Alexander the Great (332 B.C.). The Ptolemies, descended from one of Alexander's generals, ruled until the suicide of Cleopatra (30 B.C.) when Egypt became the private domain of the Roman emperor, and subsequently part of the Byzantine world. Various Muslim dynasties ruled Egypt from 641 on, including Ayyubid Sultans to 1250 and Mamluks to 1517, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks, interrupted by the occupation of Napoleon (1798-1801). A semi-independent dynasty was founded by Muhammad All in 1805 which lasted until 1952. Turkish rule became increasingly casual, permitting Great Britain to inject Its influence by purchasing shares in the Suez Canal. British troops occupied Egypt in 1882, becoming the de facto rulers. On Dec. 14, 1914, Egypt was made a protectorate of Britain. British occupation ended on Feb. 28, 1922, when Egypt became a sovereign, independent kingdom. The monarchy was abolished and a republic proclaimed on June 18, 1953.

This is a 20 Qirsh issued under the authority of the Ottoman emperor Mohammed V. It is dated year 6 of the regnal date 1327 (1913 AD). The obverse has the toughra of Mohammed VI while the reverse has the renal year, the accession date and the place of minting (Misr). Weighs 28 grams of 0.833 fineness.

This is a 20 Piastres piece minted by the British occupation authorities in 1916. Weighs 28 grams of 0.833 fineness.

This is a twenty Piaster coin minted in 1923. The obverse features King Fuad. Weighs 28 grams of 0.833 fineness.



The first Spanish attempt to subjugate the area was undertaken in 1523 by Pedro de Alvarado, Cortes' lieutenant. He was forced to retreat by Indian forces, but returned in 1525 and succeeded in bringing the region under control of the Captaincy General of Guatemala. in 1821 El Salvador and the other Central American provinces jointly declared independence from Spain. in 1823, the Republic of Central America was formed by the five Central American states; this federation dissolved in 1839. El Salvador then became an independent republic in 1841. During the 1980's El Salvador went through a 12 year Civil War that ended in 1992 with the signing of a United Nations-sponsored Peace Accord. Free elections, with full participation of all political parties, were held in 1994, 1997 and 1999.

This is a one Peso coin minted in 1893 aty the Central American Mint in San Salvador. The obverse has the bust of Cristobol Colon (Christopher Columbus, discover of the Americas. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.



The State of Eritrea is a former Ethiopian province fronting on the Red Sea. It was an Italian colony from 1889 until its incorporation Into Italian East Africa in 1936. it was under the British Military Administration from 1941 to Sept. 15, 1952, when the United Nations designated it an autonomous unit within the federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea. On Nov. 14, 1962, it was annexed with Ethiopia. in 1991 the Eritrean Peoples Liberation Front extended its control over the entire territory of Eritrea. Following 2 years of provisional government, Eritrea held a referendum on independence in May 1993. Overwhelming popular approval led to the proclamation of an independent Republic of Eritrea on May 24.

This is a 1 Tallero (Italian for Thaler) minted 1891. The Tallero was equal to 5 Lire Italian and is made to same specification. The obverse has King Umberto I with the legend UMBERTO 1 RE DE ITALIA The reverse interestingly has the denomination i both Amharic and Arabic as well as COLONIA ERITREA TALLERO. Weighs 28.13 grams of 0.800 fineness.

The Italian government issued these talleros in 1918 in the hopes of replacing the famed Maria Theresia Thaler. It resembles the original MTT but the legends in the Latin alphabet are unique but they apparently believed that the mostly Arabic or Amharic speaker users of the coins could not understand the legends. Anyway, it failed. Weighs 28.07 grams of 0.935 fineness.



Ethiopia ia an ancient kingdom that was known as Axum. It is the oldest independent country on the continent. Legend claims that Menelik I, the son born to Solomon, King of Israel, by the Queen of Sheba, settled in Axum in North Ethiopia to establish the dynasty, which reigned with only brief interruptions until 1974. Modern Ethiopian history began with the reign of Emperor Menelik II (1889-1913) under whose guidance the country emerged from medieval isolation. Progress continued throughout the reigns of Meneiik daughter, Empress Zauditu, and her successor Emperor Haile Selassie I who was coronated in 1930.  Coins of Menelik II were struck during this period with dates frozen. Emperor Haile Selassie brought Ethiopia to the world's attention after the Italian invasion in 1936 when he pled his case before the League of Nations. Italy conquered it an incorporated it to Italian East Africa along with the colonies of Eritrea and Italian Somaliland. British troops helped to drive the Italians out. Haile was reinstalled on the throne until he was deposed by a military coup in 1974. Haile was the 225th successor in the Solomonic line in Ethiopia.

This is a 1 Birr coin from 1889 EE (Ethiopian Era) (1897). It was struck at the Paris mint. The obverse has Menelik II and the reverse the Lion of Judah. Weighs 28 grams of 0.835 fineness.



The Finns, who probably originated in the Volga region of Russia, took Finland from the Lapps late in the 7th century. They were conquered in the 12th century by Eric IX of Sweden, and brought into contact with Western Christendom. In 1809, Sweden was conquered by Alexander I of Russia, and the peace terms gave Finland to Russia which became a grand duchy, with autonomy, within the Russian Empire until Dec. 6, 1917, when, shortly after the Bolshevik revolution it declared its independence. After a brief but bitter civil war between the Russian communists and Finnish nationalists in which the Whites (nationalists) were victorious, a new constitution was adopted, and on Dec. 6, 1917 Finland was established as a republic. In 1939 Soviet troops attacked Finland over disputed territorial concessions which were later granted in the peace treaty of 1940. When the Germans invaded Russia, Finland became involved and in the Armistice of 1944 lost the Petsamo area to the Soviets.

This is a ten Markka coin minted in 1967 to commemorate the 50th year of independence. Weighs 23.75 grams of 0.900 fineness.



France, the Gaul of ancient times, emerged from the Renaissance as a modern centralized national state which reached its zenith during the reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715) when it became an absolute monarchy and the foremost power in Europe. Although his reign marks the golden age of French culture, the domestic abuses and extravagance of Louis XIV plunged France into a series of costly wars. This, along with a system of special privileges granted the nobility and other favored groups, weakened the monarchy and brought France to bankruptcy. This laid the way for the French Revolution of 1789 that shook Europe and affected the whole world.
The monarchy was abolished and the First Republic formed in 1793.The new government fell in 1799 to a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte who, after declaring himself First Consul for life, in 1804 had himself proclaimed Emperor of France and King of Italy. Napoleon's military victories made him master of much of Europe, but his disastrous Russian campaign of 1812 initiated a series of defeats that led to his abdication in 1814 and exile to the island of Elba. The monarchy was briefly restored under Louis XVIII. Napoleon returned to France in March 1815, but his efforts to uphold his power were totally crushed at the battle of Waterloo. He was exiled to the island of St. Helena where he died in 1821. The monarchy under Louis XVIII was again restored in 1815, but the ultra reactionary regime of Charles X (1824-30) was overthrown by a liberal revolution and Louis Philippe of Orleans replaced him as monarch. The monarchy was ousted by the Revolution of 1848 and the Second Republic proclaimed. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (nephew of Napoleon I) was elected president of the Second Republic. He was proclaimed emperor in 1852. As Napoleon III, he gave France two decades of prosperity under a stable, autocratic regime, but led it to defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, after which the Third Republic was established. The Third Republic endured until 1940 and the capitulation of France to the swiftly maneuvering German forces. Marshal Philippe Petain formed a puppet government that sued for peace and ruled unoccupied France until 1942 from Vichy. Meanwhile, General Charles de Gaulle escaped to London where he formed a wartime government in exile and the Free French army. De Gaulle's provisional exile government was officially recognized by the Allies after the liberation of Pans in 1944, and De Gaulle, who had been serving as head of the provisional government, tacitly maintained that position. In October 1945, the people overwhelmingly rejected a return to the prewar government, thus paving the way for the formation of the Fourth Republic in 1947 just after the dismissal of De Gaulle, at grips with a coalition of rival parties, the Communists especially. In actual operation, the Fourth Republic was remarkably like the Third, with the National Assembly the focus of power causing a constant governmental instability. The later years of the Fourth Republic were marked by a burst of industrial expansion unmatched in modern French history. The growth rate, however, was marred by a two colonial wars, nagging inflationary trend that weakened the franc and undermined the betterment of the peoples buying power. This and the Algerian conflict led to the recall of De Gaulle to power, the adoption of a new constitution vesting strong powers in the executive, and the establishment in 1959 of the current Fifth Republic.

This is a one Ecu coin minted in 1704 at Paris (mintmark Scallop). The obverse has King Louis XIV. The coin was struck over an earlier piece dated 169? and 1701. One can see details of the earlier strikes. The obverse legend should read LVD-XIIII-D-G-FR-ET-NA-REX. The reverse should read BENEDICTVM SIT NOMEN DOMINI. Weighs 29.4 grams of 0.917 fineness.

This is a 1728 Ecu minted in Bayonne (mintmark L) under King Louis XV. Weighs 29.4 grams of 0.917 fineness.

This is a 1783 Ecu minted in Toulouse (mintmark M) under King Louis XVI. The coin has adjustment marks on both sides. Weighs 29.4 grams of 0.917 fineness.

This five Francs piece was minted in 1795 in Bordeaux (mintmark K). This was issued under the Directorate which misgoverned France after the abolishing of the monarchy/ The coins were dated using the revolutionary calendar (this being LAn 5, or fifth year). Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.


his is a five Francs piece minted in 1813 in Paris (mintmark A). Featured is Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.

Napoleon was defeated in the Battle of Paris in March 1815. He finally abdicated on 6 April 1814 and as exiled to the island of Elba. Louis XVIII was then restored to the throne. This is a five Frances piece minted in Toulouse during this, his first restoration. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is a five Francs piece minted in Paris (mintmark A) in 1824. The obverse has King Louis XVIII. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is a five Francs piece minted in Paris (mintmark A) in 1826. The obverse has King harles X. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is a five Francs piece minted in La Rochelle (mintmark H) in 1834. The obverse has King Louis Philippe I. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is a five Francs piece minted in Paris (mintmark A) in 1848. The obverse of this republic issue has Hercules flanked by Muses. This type was first issued during the Directorate (1795) and was used on ten and fifty Francs pieces of the Fifth Republic. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is a five Francs piece minted in Paris (mintmark A) in 1851. The obverse has Ceres. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is a five Francs piece minted in Paris (mintmark A) in 1852. The obverse has Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte as President of the Republic. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is a five Francs piece minted in Paris (mintmark A) in 18521. The obverse has Emperor Napoleon III (he was the nephew of the real Napoleon). Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is a five Francs piece minted in Paris (mintmark A) in 1870. The obverse has Ceres. This was the republic issue just after Napoleon III abdicated and moved to Germany. It has no motto on the reverse with a very low mintage of 64,000. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is a five Francs piece minted in Paris (mintmark A) in 1870. The obverse has Ceres. This was the republic issue just after Napoleon III abdicated and moved to Germany. It has the motto on the reverse. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.



One of the largest cities in modern Germany, Frankfurt is located on the north bank of the Main River about 25 miles (42 kilometers) upstream from where it Joins the Rhine at Mainz. it was the site of a Roman camp in the first century. Frankfurt was a commercial center from the early Middle Ages and became a favored location for imperial councils during the Carolingian period because of its central location. An imperial mint operated from early times and had a large production during the 12th to 14th centuries. Local issues were produced from at least the mid-14th century, but it was not until 1428 that the city was officially granted the right to coin its own money. In establishing the seven permanent electors of the Empire in 1356, the Golden Bull also made Frankfurt the site of those elections and increased the prestige of the city even further. Frankfurt remained a free city until 1806 and then was the capital of the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt from 1810 until 1814, only to regain its free status in 1815. The city chose the wrong side in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 and thus was absorbed by victorious Prussia in the latter year.

This is an one Thaler coin minted in 1860 i Frankfurt-am-Main. The obverse has Free City of Frankfurt. Weighs 18.5 grams of 0.900 fineness.



French Indo-China, made up of the protectorates of Annam. Tonkin. Cambodia and Laos and the colony of Cochin-China was located on the Indo-Chinese peninsula of Southeast Asia. The forebears of the modern Indo-Chinese people originated in the Yellow River Valley of Northern China. From there, they were driven into the Indo-Chinese peninsula by the Han Chinese. The Chinese followed southward in the second century B.C., conquering the peninsula and ruling it until 938, leaving a lingering heritage of Chinese learning and culture. Indo-Chinese independence was basically maintained until the arrival of the French in the mid-19th century who established control over all of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. Activities directed toward obtaining self-determination accelerated during the Japanese occupation of World War II. The dependencies were changed from colonies to territories within the French Union in 1946, and all the inhabitants were made French citizens. In Augustof 1945, an uprising erupted involving the French and Vietnamese Nationalists, culminated in the French military disaster at Dien Bien Phu (May, 1954) and the subsequent Geneva Conference that brought an end to French colonial rule In Indo-China.

This is a trade coin (Piaster de Commerce), minted in Paris in 1898. This style was issued from 1895 through 1922. The reverse has the weight (27 grams) and he fineness (0.900). In 1923 the piastre was devalued.



German New Guinea occupies the eastern half of the Island of New Guinea. It lies north of Australia near the equator and borders on Indonesian West Irian. In 1884 Germany annexed the area known as German New Guinea (also Neu Guinea or Kaiser Wilhelmsland) comprising the northern section of eastern New Guinea, and granted its administration and development to the Neu-Guinea Compagnie. Administration reverted to Germany in 1899 following the failure of the company to exercise adequate administration. While a German protectorate, German New Guinea had an area of 92,159 sq. ml. (238,692 sq. km.) and a population 01 about 250,000. Capital: Herbertshohe, 1 of 4 capitals of German New Guinea. The seat of government was transferred to Rabaul in 1910. Copra was the duet crop.

Australian troops occupied German New Guinea in Aug. 1914, shortly alter Great Britain declared war on Germany. It was mandated to Australia by the League of Nations in 1920, known as the Territory of New Guinea. The territory was invaded and most of it was occupied by Japan in 1942. Following the Japanese surrender, it came under U.N. trusteeship, Dec. 13, 1946, with Australia as the administering power.


This is the 5 Mark piece was only struck that year 1894 at the Berlin Mint. The figure on the obverse is the Bird of Paradise. In my opinion it is one of the prettiest crowns ever struck. Only 19000 were issued. Weighs 27.7 grams of 0.900 fineness.



The Republic of Ghana is a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations. The state of Ghana, comprising the former colonies of Gold Coast and British Togoland, obtained independence on March 6, 1957, becoming the first Negro African colony to do so. On July I, 1960, Ghana adopted a republican constitution, changing from a ministerial to a presidential form of government. The government was overthrown, the constitution suspended and the National Assembly dissolved by the Ghanaian army and police on Feb. 24, 1966. The government was returned to civilian authority in Oct. 1969, but was again seized by military officers in a bloodless coup on Jan. 13, 1972, but 3 further coups occurred in 1978, 1979 and 1981. The latter 2 coups were followed by suspension of the constitution and banning of political parties. A new constitution, which allowed multiparty politics, was approved in April 1992.

This ten shilling coin was issued in 1948 as part of the new coinage of Ghana. The obverse has the image of Kwame Nkrumah who is considered the founder of Ghana. The reverse has a five pointed star with country, date, and denomination legends. Weighs 28.28 grams of 0.925 finess.



The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is located off the northwest coast of the European continent. After the departure of the Romans, who brought Britain into a more active relationship with Europe, it fell prey to invaders from Scandinavia and the Low Countries who drove the original Britons into Scotland and Wales, and established a profusion of kingdoms that finally united in the 11th century under the Danish King Canute. Norman rule, following the conquest of 1066, stimulated the development of those institutions, which have since distinguished British life. Henry VIII (1509-47) turned Britain from continental adventuring and faced it to the sea - a decision that made Britain a world power from the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603). Strengthened by the Industrial Revolution and the defeat of Napoleon, 19th century Britain turned to the remote parts of the world and established a colonial empire of such extent and prosperity that the world has never seen its like.

This is a five shilling (crown) minted in 1677. It features King Charles II on the obverse. The reverse has the shields of England, Scotland, France and Ireland with the date 1677 and the regnal legend. Weighs 30 grams of 0.925 fineness.

This is an emergency issue of 1797 where this Spanish colonial 8 Reales piece from Mexico was countermarked to pass for a crown (five shillings). The Brits qt the time called it "the head of a fool on the head of an ass." Weighs 27 grams of 0.896 fineness.

This is another emergency issue this time by the Bank of England actually a dollar token  in 1804. Often Spanish 8 reales pieces with overstruck with the British dies. Weighs 27 grams of 0.896 fineness.


This is an example of a British Trade Dollar struck for commerce in the Far East. The reverse has legends in Chinese and Malay denoting the denomination. The coins were minted in Bombay and Calcutta India from 1895 to 1935 except for 1925 and 1930 which were minted in London. Weighs 27 grams of 0.900 fineness.



Greece, the Mother of Western civilization, attained the peak of its culture in the 5th century B.C., when it contributed more to government, drama, art and architecture than any other people to this time. Greece fell under Roman domination in the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C., becoming part of the Byzantine Empire until Constantinople tell to the Crusaders in 1202. With the fail of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453, Greece became part of the Ottoman Empire. Independence from Turkey was won with the revolution of 1821-27. In 1833, Greece was established as a monarchy, with sovereignty guaranteed by Britain, France and Russia. After a lengthy power struggle between the monarchist forces and democratic factions, Greece was proclaimed a republic in 1925. The monarchy was restored In 1935 and reconfirmed by a plebiscite in 1946. The Italians invaded Greece via Albania on Oct. 28, 1940 but were driven back well within the Albanian border. Germany began their invasion in April 1941 and quickly overran the entire country and drove off a British Expeditionary force by the end of April. King George II and his new government went into exile. The German-Italian occupation of Greece lasted until Oct. 1944 after which only German troops remained until the end of the occupation. On April 21, 1967 a military Junta took control of the government and suspended the constitution. King Constantine II made an unsuccessful attempt against the Junta in the tall of 1968 and consequently fled to Italy. The monarchy was formally abolished by plebiscite, Dec. 8. 1974, and Greece was established as the Hellenic Republic, the third republic in Greek history.

This is a five Drachma coin minted in 1876 in Paris. The obverse features King George. The reverse has the Greek arms. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.



Guatemala, once the site of an ancient Mayan civilization, conquered by Pedro de AJvarado, the resourceful lieutenant of Cortes who undertook the conquest from Mexico. Cruel but strategically skillful, he progressed rapidly along the Pacific coastal lowlands to the highland plain of Quetzaltenango where the decisive battle for Guatemala was fought. After routing the Indian forces, he established the city of Guatemala in 1524. The Spanish Captaincy-General of Guatemala included all Central America but Panama. Guatemala declared its independence of Spain in 1821 and was absorbed into the Mexican empire of Augustin Iturbide (1822-23). From 1823 to 1839 Guatemala was a constituent state of the Central American Republic. Upon dissolution of that confederation, Guatemala proclaimed itself an independent republic. Like El Salvador, Guatemala suffered from internal strife between right-wing, US-backed military government and leftist communist indigenous peoples from ca. 1954 to 1997.

This is an 1821 eight Reales piece minted in Guatemala City (mintmark NG) during the Spanish controlled era. The obverse has Ferdinand VII. Reverse has the Spanish arms and the assayer's initial M (Manuel Eusabio Sanchez)/ Weighs 27 grams of 0.896 fineness.

This is a one Peso coin minted in 1894. Obverse has Justice seated facing left. Reverse has the fineness, the date, and arms. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.



The Republic of Haiti occupies the western one-third of the Island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean Sea between Puerto Rico and Cuba. Columbus discovered Hispaniola in 1492. Spain colonized the Island, making Santo Domingo the base for exploration of the Western Hemisphere. The area that is now Haiti was ceded to France by Spain in 1697. Slaves brought from Africa to work the coffee and sugar cane plantations made it one of the richest colonies of the French Empire. A slave revolt in the 1790's led to the establishment of the Republic of Haiti in1804, making it the oldest Black republic in the world and the second oldest republic (after the United States) in the Western Hemisphere. The French language is used on Haitian coins although it Is spoken by only about 10% of the populace. A form of Creole is the language of the Haitians.

This is a one Gourde coin minted in 1887. Obverse has a Caucasian femae with a bonnet. Reverse has the arms of Haiti. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.



The city of Hamburg is located on the Elbe River about 75 miles from the North Sea. it was founded by Charlemagne in the 9th century. in 1241 it Joined Lubeck to form the Hanseatic League. The mint right was leased to the citizens in 1292. However, the first local halfpennies had been struck almost 50 years earlier, in 1510 Hamburg was formally made a Free City, though, in fact, it had been tree for about 250 years. it was occupied by the French during the Napoleonic period, In 1866 It Joined the North German Confederation and became a part of the German Empire in 1871. The Hamburg coinage is almost continuous up to the time of World War I.

This is a five Mark coin minted in 1900 in Hamburg. German States were permitted to coin silver and gold coins of 2, 3. 5, 10, and 20 Mark until the conclusion of World War I. Obverse has the city arms and the identity as Free and Hanseatic City Hanburg. Reverse has German arms. Weighs 27,8 grams of 0.900 fineness.



A state located in northwest Germany which became Hannover when Ernst August 01 Brunswick-Luneburg chose the title of Elector of Hannover after his capital city. During the Napoleonic wars it was first occupied by Prussia and then Incorporated into the Kingdom of Westphalia. in 1814, it was raised to the status of a kingdom. Hannover was absorbed by Prussia in 1866.

This is a one Thaler coin minted in Hannover in 1860. Obverse has King George V. Reverse has the Hannover arms. Weighs 18.5 grams of 0.896 fineness.



Hawaii consists of eight main islands and numerous smaller islets of coral and volcanic origin. It is situated in the central Pacific Ocean, 2400 miles from San Francisco. The islands, originally populated by Polynesians from the Society Islands, were rediscovered by British navigator Capt. James Cook in 1778. He named them the Sandwich Islands. King Kamehameha I (the Great) united the islands under one kingdom which endured until 1893, when Queen Lilioukalani was deposed and a provisional government established. This was followed in 1894 by a republic which governed Hawaii until 1898, when the islands were ceded to the United States. Hawaii was organized as a territory in 1900, and attained statehood on August 21, 1959.

This is the Hawaiian one dollar coin. Coins of 1 , 10, 25 and 50 cents and $1 were minted to U.S. standards in San Francisco. The cent was struck in 1847 and the silver was struck in 1883.The obverse has King Kalaqkaua I. The reverse has he Hawaiian arms. Weighs 28.77 grams of 0.900 fineness.



Founded by the youngest of Philipp l's four sons upon the death of their father in 1567, Hesse-Darmstadt was one of the two main branches of the family which survived past the beginning of the 17 century. The Countship of Hanau-Lichtenberg was through marriage when the male line failed in 1736. Ludwig X was forced to cede that territory to France in 1801. In 1803, Darmstadt acquired part of the Palatinate, the city of Friedberg, part of the city of Mainz, and the Duchy of Westphalia in a general settlement with France. The Landgrave was elevated to the status of Grand Duke in 1806 and reacquired Hesse-Homburg, which got its soveranity back in 1816. In 1815 the Congress of Vienna awarded Hesse-Darmstadt the city of Worms and all of Mainz. These were relinquished, along with Hesse-Homburg, to Prussia in 1866 and Hesse-Darmstadt was called just Hesse from 1867 onwards. Hesse became part of the German Empire in 1871, but ceased to exist as a semi-sovereign state at the end of World War I.

This is a five mark coin issued by the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1904 to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the birth of Philipp the Magnanimus, Weighs 27,8 grams of 0.900 fineness.



The Republic of Honduras is situated in Central America alongside El Salvador, between Nicaragua and Guatemala. After declaring its independence from Spain on September 15, 1821, Honduras fell under the Mexican empire of Augustin de Iturbide, and then joined the Central American Republic (1823-39). Upon the effective dissolution of that federation (ca. 1840), Honduras reclaimed its independence as a self-standing republic. Honduras forces played a major part in permanently ending the threat of William Walker to establish a slave holding empire in Central America based on his self engineered elections to the Presidency of Nicaragua. Thrice expelled from Central America, Walker was shot by a Honduran firing squad in 1860. 1876 to 1933 saw a period of instability and for some months were under U.S. Marine Corp military occupation. From 1933 to 1940 General Tibuitio Canas Andino was dictator president of the Republic. Since 1990 democratic practices have become more consistent.

This is an 1883 one Peso piece in Tegucigalpa. Obverse has flags around the national symbol. The reverse has a standing Liberty. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.



Hong Kong is situated at the mouth of the Canton or Pearl River 90 miles (145 km.) southeast of Canton. Long a haven for fishermen-pirates and opium smugglers, the island of Hong Kong was ceded to Britain at the conclusion of the first Opium War, 1839-1842. The acquisition of a barren rock was ridiculed by London and English merchants operating in the Far East. The Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutter's Island were ceded in 1860, and the so-called New Territories, comprising most of the mainland of the colony, were leased to Britain for 99 wars in 1898.

The legends on Hong Kong coinage are bilingual: English and Chinese.


This is the Hong Kong dollar coin minted in 1866 (and also 1867 and 1868). The coin was struck at the Hong Kong mint. The reverse has Queen Victoria. Weighs 27 grams of 0.900 fineness.



The ancient kingdom of Hungary, founded by the Magyars In the 9th century, achieved Its greatest extension in the mid-14' century when its dominions touched the Baltic, Black and Mediterranean Seas. After suffering repeated Turkish invasions, Hungary accepted Habsburg rule to escape Turkish occupation, regaining independence in 1867 with the Emperor of Austria as king of a dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Alter World War I, Hungary lost 2/3 of its territory and 1/2 of its population and underwent a period of drastic political revision. The short-lived republic 011918 was followed by a chaotic interval of communist rule, 1919, and the restoration of the monarchy in 1920 with Admiral Horthy as regent of the kingdom. Although a German ally in World War ii, Hungary was occupied by German troops who imposed a pro-Nazi dictatorship, 1944. Soviet armies drove out the Germans in 1945 and assisted the communist minority in seizing power. A revised constitution published on Aug. 20,1949, established Hungary as a Peoples Republic of the Soviet type. On October 23, 1989, Hungary was proclaimed the Republic of Hungary.

This is a one Thaler coin minted under Empress Maria Theresa in 1780, the year of her death. The obverse has the royal Austro-Hungarian arms with her name and titles. The reverse has the Blessed Virgin Mary and the baby Jesus with the Latin legend for Holy  Mary Mother of  Mother of God Patron of Hungary.

This is five Korona coin minted in 1907 to celebrate 40th anniversary of the coronation of Franz Josef. Obverse has Emperor Franz Josef. Reverse has the coronation ceremony in 1867. Weighs 24 grams of 0.900 fineness.



The Republic of Iceland is an island of recent volcanic origin In the North Atlantic east of Greenland and immediately south of the Arctic Circle. Iceland was settled by Norwegians In the 9th century and established as an independent republic in 930. The Icelandic assembly called the Althingi also established in 930, is the oldest parliament in the world. Iceland came under Norwegian sovereignty in 1262, and passed to Denmark when Norway and Denmark were united under the Danish crown in 1380. In 1918 It was established as a virtually independent Kingdom in union with Denmark. On June 17, 1944, while Denmark was still under occupation by troops of the Third Reich, Iceland was established by plebiscite as an independent republic.

This is an one thousand kronur coin minted in 1974 to commemorate the 1100th anniversary of the first Norse settlement. Weighs 30 grams of 0.925 fineness.



These islands are now known at Reunion, a French department, and Mauritius, a republic. They are located in the Indian Ocean east of the island of Madagascar. Prior to and after Napoleonic times they were called Iles de France et Bourbon.

These coins were locally manufactured in 1920 with the silver coins, recovered from the Portuguese brig Ouvidor by the French privateer Pierre Bouvet, and named Decaen dollar, after the governor of the islands of France and Bonaparte (Mauritius and Reunion Islands). The coins are usually weakly struck in the center on both sides. The denomination is 10 Livres. Weighs 27 grams of 0.896 fineness.



The state of Israel is a Middle Eastern republic at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, bounded by Lebanon on the north, Syria on the northeast, Jordan on the east, and Egypt on the southwest. Palestine, which corresponds to Canaan of the Bible, was settled by the Philistines about the 12th century B.C. and shortly thereafter was settled by the Jews who established the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Because of its position as part of the land bridge connecting Asia and Africa, Palestine was invaded and conquered by nearly all of the historic empires of ancient Europe and Asia. In the l6th century it became a part of the Ottoman Empire. After failing to the British in World War I, it, together with TransJordan, was mandated to Great Britain by the League of Nations, 1922. For more than half century prior to the termination of the British mandate over Palestine, 1948, Zionist leaders had sought to create a Jewish homeland for Jews who were dispersed throughout the world. For almost as long, Jews fleeing persecution had immigrated to Palestine. The Nazi persecutions of the 1930s and 1940s increased the Jewish movement to Palestine and generated international support for the creation of a Jewish state, first promulgated by the Balfour Declaration of 1917, which asserted British support for the endeavor. The state of Israel was proclaimed as the Jewish state in the territory that was Palestine. The remainder of that territory was occupied by Jordanian and Egyptian armies.

This is a 1958 five Lirot coin. It was issued to celebrate ten years of independence. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.



From the fall of Rome until modern times, ltaly was little more than a geographical expression. Although nominally Included in the Empire of Charlemagne and the Holy Roman Empire, It as in reality divided into a number of independent states and kingdoms presided over by wealthy families, soldiers of fortune or hereditary rulers. The 19th century unification movement fostered by Mazzini, Garibaldi and Cavour attained fruition in 1860-70 with the creation of the Kingdom of Italy and the installation of Victor Emmanuel, king of Sardinia, as king of Italy. Benito Mussolini came to power during the post-World War I period of economic and political unrest, and installed a Fascist dictatorship with a figurehead king as titular Head of State. Mussolini entered Italy into the German-Japanese anti-comintern pact (Tri-Partite Pact) and withdrew from the League of Nations. The war did not go well for Italy and Germany was forced to assist Italy in its failed invasion of Greece. The Allied Invasion of Sicily on July 10, 1943 and bombings of Rome brought the Fascist council to a no vote of confidence on July 23, 1943. Mussolini was arrested but soon escaped and set up a government In Salo. Rome toll to the Allied forces in June, 1944 and the country was allowed the status of co-belligerent against Germany. The Germans hold northern Italy for another year. Mussolini was eventually captured and executed by partisans. Following the defeat of the Axis powers, the Italian monarchy was dissolved by plebiscite, and the Italian Republic proclaimed.

This is a five Lire piece minted in 1872 in Rome. The obverse has King Vittorio Emanuele II. The reverse has Italy' arms. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.


Sicily lies off the southwestern tip of mainland Italy and is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It has been inhabited for millennia, early on by tribal peoples form various places around the Mediterranean in prehistoric times, followed by Elymians from the Aegean Sea and Phoenicians in the early historical period. Greek colonists began settling in Sicily around 750 BC and their most important urban center was Syracuse. Carthage also founded colonies in the western part of the island and clashes between those enclaves and the Greek area led to the series of conflicts known as the Punic Wars. The Roman Republic eventually intervened and upon defeating Carthage, annexed Sicily as the first Roman province outside of mainland Italy The history of the island followed that of the Roman Republic and subsequent Empire, falling victim to barbarian invasions as the latter disintegrated. As the Byzantine Empire succeeded the Roman, Sicily came under a new threat in the rise of Mohammedism in North Africa. The Mohammedan conquest of Sicily extended over more than a century as one town or city after another fell during the 9th and 10th centuries. This lasted until the second half of the 11th century, when Normans from northern Europe, who had gained a foothold in southern Italy, eventually conquered the island, culminating in the capture of Palermo in 1072. The Normans established the Kingdom of Sicily and the island was ruled from that time on by a succession of European dynasties. The Spanish gained control of the island and the southern half of Italy by the 15th century and in the 18th century, a branch of the Bourbon dynasty ruled in both Sicily and Naples (see), usually as separate entities. After the Napoleonic Wars, Sicily and Naples were permanently united in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies from 1816 until 1860. It was annexed by Sardinia-Piedmont in the latter year and became part of united Italy in 1861.

This five Lire piece was issued during the French occupation, Featured is Joachim Murat, a Marshall of France who was designated by Napoleon as king. Obverse has Murat (he was married to Napoleon's sister). Reverse has the national arms. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.


Comprised the northern Italian duchies of Milan and Mantua were absorbed into the Kingdom of Napoleon in 1805. After Napoleon's fall they were awarded to Austria and incorporated into the Hapsburg monarchy as the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia. Lombardy revolted against Austrian rule in 1848 and established a free provisional government. The Lombard campaign of 1859 restored rule under the Kingdom of Italy for Lombardy in 1859 and Venetia in1866.

This is a five Italian Lire piece minted at the Milan mint (mintmark M) in 1848 by the Provisional Government of Lombardy. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness..


A town in Tuscany and the residence of a marquis, was nominally a fief but managed to maintain a de facto independence until awarded by Napoleon to his sister Elisa in 1805. In 1814 it was occupied by the Neapolitans, from 1817 to 1847 it was a duchy of the queen of Etruria, after which it became a division of Tuscany.

This is a five Franchi coin of 1808/7 featuring Elisa Bonaparte and her spouse Felix Bacciocchi. This is the overdate variety. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.


The principal city in northern Italy and the second largest city of the modern republic, Milan is located in Lombardy, south of the foothills of the Alps. It is of ancient Gaulic tribal foundation, conquered by Rome in 222 BC and named Mediolanum. Sacked by Attila in 452 and destroyed by the Goths in 539, the city belonged to the Kingdom of the Lombards after being rebuilt and later, belonged to the Germanic Empire. Various families ruled the city in the later Middle Ages and it was also a republic for periods in the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries. The Visconti family became Lords of Milan in the early 14th century and the form of government was changed from elective to hereditary, the lord being raised to the rank of duke in 1395. In 1450, Francesco I Sforza inherited the duchy through marriage to the Visconti heiress and the Sforza's began to enhance the power and prestige of Milan. The city became a pawn in the power struggles between France and the Habsburgs, passing to the control of Spain in 1535, then to Austria in 1740. Conquered by France in 1796, Milan formed part of the Cisalpine Republic from 1797 then the Italian Republic in 1802 and of the Kingdom of Italy from 1805 until 1814. In the latter year, Milan was ceded to Austria and became part of Lombardy-Venetia. In 1859, the city and territory was annexed to Sardinia, becoming part of united Italy.

This is a Crocione, the Italian name for a Kronenthaler (crown dollar). It was minted in Milan in 1789 and depicts Joseph II of Austria. The mintmark M is below the bust. Weighs 29 grams of 0.7830 fineness.


The Kingdom of Naples existed as a political entity for most of the period from the late 12th century to the middle of the 19th century. Throughout almost 700 years of its existence, the kingdom was ruled by dynasties from other countries, with periods of stability punctuated by the vicissitudes of war, famine, pestilence and civil strife. The kingdom took its name from that of the principal city of southern Italy, one of the oldest inhabited urban centers in the world. Founded as a Greek colony in the 9lh-8th century BC as Neapolis (New City), Naples became part of the Roman Republic about 300 BC and was a major metropolitan region of the Roman Empire. The city was the capital of a duchy from the mid-6th century until the Normans, who had conquered Sicily earlier in the 12th century, took control and united the Neapolitan territories to their island. The geographical extent of the kingdom covered most of southern Italy and Sicily during periods when the two parts were united. Naples came under the control of Aragon in the mid-15th century, was briefly taken by France in the early 16th century, and then ruled by the Spanish Habsburgs until 1714, at the end of the War of the Spanish Succession. For a brief time in 1647-48, a Neapolitan Republic was created, under the patronage of Duke Henri of Lorraine, as the result of a revolt against the Spanish viceroys. Austria ruled Naples in the early 18th century until a branch of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty was installed in 1734. During the Napoleonic period, a short-lived Parthenopean Republic was proclaimed in 1799 on the French model. The Bourbon king was briefly restored, only to be defeated by Napoleon himself, who then placed his own brother as monarch in the kingdom. After the defeat of Napoleon, the Bourbons were restored once again and Naples was formally united to Sicily in 1816 as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It was annexed by Sardinia-Piedmont in 1860 and became part of united Italy in 1861.

This is a 120 grana piece minted in 1867. In those days, planchets (coin blanks) were weighed before striking and if overweight, they were filed down to the correct weight. This coin shows these marks (called adjustment marks) on the reverse. Weighs 27.5 grams of 0.833 fineness.


During many centuries prior to the formation of the unified Kingdom of Italy, when Italy was divided into numerous independent papaI and ducal states, the Popes held temporal sovereignty over an area in central Italy comprising some 17,000 sq. mi. (44,030 sq. km.) including the city of Rome. At the time of the general unification of Italy under the Kingdom of Sardinia, 1861, the papal dominions beyond Rome were acquired by that kingdom diminishing the Pope's sovereignty to Rome and its environs. In 1870, while France's opposition to papal dispossession was neutralized by its war with Prussia, the Italian army seized weakly defended Rome and made it the capital of Italy, thereby abrogating the last vestige of papal temporal power. In 1871, the Italian Parliament enacted the Law of Guarantees, which guaranteed a special status for the Vatican area, and spiritual freedom and a generous income for the Pope. Pope Pius IX and his successors adamantly refused to acknowledge the validity of these laws and voluntarily "imprisoned" themselves in the Vatican. The impasse between State and Church lasted until the signing of the Lateran Treaty, Feb. 11, 1929, by which Italy recognized the sovereignty and independence the new Vatican City state.

This is a  five Lire coin minted in Tome by the Papal States. The obverse has Pope Pius IX.  Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.


Established by Napoleon in 1798 in the Piedmont area of northwest Italy. It was the mainland possession of the kingdom of Sardinia. The republic was overthrown by Austro-Russian forces in 1799.

This is the single 5 Franc piece produced for this republic in 1801. The coin is dated L'AN 9 which is the 9th year of the French revolutionary calendar.. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.



Sardinia is an island located in the Mediterranean Sea, west of the southern Italian peninsula. Along with some minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy separated on the north from Corsica, France by the Strait of Bonifacio. Settled by Phoenicians and Greeks before it came under control of Carthage about 600 BC; taken by the Romans in 238 BC; part of the Vandal Kingdom during the 5th century; re-conquered by the Byzantine Empire in 533 AD. From the 8th century, it was frequently raided by Muslims, but that threat was eliminated by Pisa in 1016 as the object of a competitor's bet. The Genoese and Pisans were driven out by the Aragonese during the 14th-15th centuries, remaining under Spanish rule until 1708; held by Austria 1708-17, regained by the Spanish in 1717 until it was finally ceded to Savoy in 1720 in exchange for Sicily.
The combined territories of Savoy (Piedmont) and Sardinia were known henceforth as the Kingdom of Sardinia or Sardinia-Piedmont. As a result of Napoleon's invasion of Italy and his restructuring of the states in various regions, Carlo Emanuele IV abdicated in favor of his brother, Vittorio Emanuele I in 1802. As a result of the political upheavals of the 1850s in Italy, Vittorio Emanuele II was elected king of united Italy in 1859 and assumed the title in 1861.


This is a five Lire coin minted in 1825 in Torino (mintmark is on reverse L in diamond to the left of L-5). The coin features King Carlo Felice. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.



The Queen of the Adriatic Venice grew from small settlements of refugees fleeing the waves of Germanic and Hun invasions during the 5th and 6th centuries, to become one of the great maritime powers of the Mediterranean in the following centuries. Early in the 6th century, the people living around the lagoons fearing further conquests by the Lombards, elected their first duke, Ursus, who is recognized as being the first Doge of Venice. At the beginning of the 9th century, the seat of the doge was moved to the Rialto and the first ducal palace, as well as the basilica of St. Mark, were constructed. Charlemagne recognized Venice as part of Byzantine territory in Italy and the city's trading rights along the Adriatic coast. When Venice acquired the purported relics of St. Mark from Alexandria in 828, its position as one of the major city-states of the Mediterranean was firmly fixed. As the city's commercial and naval power expanded during the next few centuries, Venice gradually gained control of other coasts and islands along the Adriatic and in the Eastern Mediterranean. Venice became an imperial power as a result of the Fourth Crusade in 1204, when it financed the Latin takeover of Constantinople and, by the late 13th century, was the most prosperous city in all of Europe. When the printing press made its appearance in Germany in the mid-16th century, Venice was quick to adopt the invention and became the printing capital of Europe by 1482. The wealth of the city's commercial and political families financed the building of magnificent palaces and churches, as well as supported much of the art of the Renaissance in that part of Italy. The city began to decline at the same time, due in part, to the Turkish conquest of the Byzantine Empire and the subsequent loss of some territories in the Eastern Mediterranean. The discovery of the New World and the all-sea route to India destroyed the city's trade monopoly. By the time Napoleon conquered Venice and deposed the last doge in 1797 thus ending eleven centuries of the Republic, the city held only a remnant of its former territory and power, but still gloried in its many exquisite buildings and canals. Napoleon signed over control of Venice to Austria in the same year, but it became a part of his Kingdom of Italy in 1805. After Napoleon's defeat in 1814, Venice was returned to Austria as part of Lombardy-Venetia. The news of the Revolution of Vienna and the Milanese Insurrection , in 1848, found a ready echo in Venice, where the Austrian garrison, the Italians excepted, departed after peacefully capitulating . Daniele Manin became the head of the provisional government, which the cities of the mainland accepted; they soon after joined the union with Piedmont under Carlo Alberto, as had already been done by Venice, and in a few days news arrived of the cessation of hostilities between Piedmont and Austria. The Venetian republic was then re-established (11 August, 1848). The Neapolitan general Guglielmo Pepe commanded the Venetian troops against the Austrians who came to retake the city. It was besieged in October; on 24 August, 1849, after a bombardment of twenty-four days, it surrendered. In 1866 Austria ceded Venice to Napoleon III, who gave it to the Kingdom of Italy. Following the Third Italian War of Independence In 1866, Venice became a permanent part of the new Kingdom of Italy.

This five Lire piece was issued by the revolutionary government. The obverse has the nimbate lion of Saint Mark with the date XI AGOSTO MDCCCXLVIII on the base The lion's  right paw supporting the book of the Book of the Gospels.
inscribed PAX TIBI MARCE EVANGELISTA MEUS. It is encircled by the legend: INDEPENDENZA ITALIANA with VENEZIA in the exergue. The reverse has the denomination 5 LIRE within a wreath encircled by the legend ALLEANZA DEI POPOLI LIBERI * 1848 *



Jamaica was discovered by Columbus on May 3, 1494, and settled by Spain in 1509. The island was captured in 1655 by a British naval force under the command of Admiral William Penn, sent by Oliver Cromwell and ceded to Britain by the Treaty of Madrid, 1670. For more than 150 years, the Jamaican economy of sugar, slaves and piracy was one of the most prosperous in the new world. Dissension between the property-oriented island legislature and the home government prompted parliament to establish a crown colony government for Jamaica in 1866. From 1958 to 1961 Jamaica was a member of the West Indies Federation, withdrawing when Jamaican voters rejected the association. The colony attained independence on Aug. 6, 1962. Jamaica is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Elizabeth II is the Head of State, as Queen of Jamaica.
In 1758, the Jamaican Assembly authorized stamping a certain amount of Spanish milled coinage. Token coinage by merchants aided the island's monetary supply in the early 19th century. Sterling coinage was introduced in Jamaica in 1825, with the additional silver three halfpence under William IV and Victoria. Certain issues of three pence of William IV and Victoria were intended for colonial use, including Jamaica, as were the last dates of three pence for George VI. There was an extensive token and work tally coinage for Jamaica in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. A decimal standard currency system was adopted on Sept. 8, 1969.


This is a ten Dollar coin issued in 1976 to honor Admiral Nelson. This is a larger than usual coin weighing 42.6 grams of 0.925 fineness minted by the Franklin Mint...



Japan, founded (so legend holds) In 660 B.C. by a direct descendant of the Sun Goddess, was first brought into contact with the west by a storm-blown Portuguese ship in 1542. European traders and missionaries proceeded to enlarge the contact until the Shogunate, sensing a military threat in the foreign presence, expelled all foreigners and restricted relations with the outside world in the 17th century. Alter Commodore Perry's U.S. flotilla visited in 1854, Japan rapidly industrialized, abolished the Shogunate and established a parliamentary form of government, and by the end of the 19th century achieved the status of a modern economic and military power. A series of wars with China and Russia, and participation with the allies in World War I, enlarged Japan territorially but brought its interests into conflict with the Far Eastern interests of the United States, Britain and the Netherlands, causing it to align with the Axis Powers for the pursuit of World War II. Alter its defeat in World War II, General Douglas MacArthur forced Japan to renounce military aggression as a political instrument, and he Instituted constitutional democratic self-government. Japan quickly gained a position as an economic world power.

This is a Trade Dollar minted in Meiji 9 (!875). This coin has been validated by Chinese merchants who put their chop marks on the coin. Weighs 27.2 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is an one Yen coin minted at the Osaka mint in Meiji 24. The reverse has the Gin (silver) mark at left. Weighs 27 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is an one Yen coin minted at the Edo (Tokyo) mint in Meiji 249 The reverse has the Gin (silver) mark at right. These are normally attributed to circulate in Taiwan, then a Japanese territory. Weighs 27 grams of 0.900 fineness.



Japan replaced China as the predominant foreign influence in Korea in 1895 and annexed the peninsular country in 1910. Defeat in World War II brought an end to Japanese rule. U.S. troops entered Korea from the south and Soviet forces entered from the north. The Cairo conference (1943) had established that Korea should be free and independent. The Potsdam conference (1945) set the 38th parallel as the line dividing the occupation forces of the United States and Russia. When Russia refused to permit a U.N. commission designated to supervise reunification elections to enter North Korea, an election was held in South Korea on May 10, 1948. By its determination, the Republic of Korea was inaugurated on Aug. 15,1948.

This is a ten thousand Won coin issued in honor of the 24th Olympic Games held in Seoul in 1987. Weighs 22.6 grams of 0.925 fineness.



The Latvians, of Aryan descent primarily from the German Order of Livonian Knights, were nomadic tribesmen who settled along the Baltic prior to the 13th century. Ideally situated as a trade route and lacking a central government, conquered in 1561 by Poland and Sweden. Following the third partition of Poland by Austria, Prussia and Russia in 1795, Latvia came under Russian domination and did not experience autonomy until the Russian Revolution of 1917 provided an opportunity for freedom. The Latvian Republic was established on Nov. 18, 1918. The republic was occupied by Soviet troops and annexed to the Soviet Union In 1940. Following the German occupation of 1941-44, it was retaken by Russia and reestablished as a member republic of the Soviet Union. Western countries, including the United States, did not recognize Latvia's incorporation into the Soviet Union. The coinage issued during the early 20th Century Republic Is now obsolete. Latvia declared their independence from the U.S.S.R. on August 22, 1991.

This is a five Lats coin minted in 1931.Obverse has a woman in  native dress. Reverse has the nation's arms. Weighs 25 grams of 0.835 fineness.



The Republic of Liberia nis located on the southern side of the West African bulge between Sierra Leone and ivory Coast. The Liberian coast was explored and charted by Portuguese navigator Pedro de Cintra in 1461. For the three centuries following Portuguese traders visited the area regularly to trade for gold, slaves and pepper. The modern country of Liberia, Africa's first republic, was settled in 1822 by the American Colonization Society as a homeland for American freed slaves, with the U.S. government furnishing funds and assisting in negotiations for procurement of land from the native chiefs. The various settlements united in 1839 to form the Commonwealth of Liberia, and in 1847 established the country as a republic with a constitution modeled after that of the United States. U.S. money was declared legal tender in Liberia in 1943, replacing British West African currency.

This is a 1962 one Dollar coin. Weighs 20.7 grams of 0.900 fineness.



Liechtenstein is a small principality located between Switzerland and Austria. The coinage was denominated in Austrian Krone until World War I when the Austrian currency collapsed. After that, they were denominated in Swiss Francs.

This is an example of a five Kronen crown struck in 1910. The mintage was rather small, only 10000. Weighs 24 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is an example of a five Francs crown struck in 1924. The mintage was rather small, only 15000. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.



The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is located in western Europe between Belgium, Germany and France. Founded about 963, Luxembourg was a prominent country of the Holy Roman Empire; one of its sovereigns became Holy Roman Emperor as Henry VII, 1308. After being made a duchy by Emperor Charles IV, 1354, Luxembourg passed under the domination of Burgundy, Spain, Austria and France, 1443-1815, regaining autonomy under the Treaty of Vienna, 1815, as a grand duchy in union with the Netherlands, though ostensibly a member of the German Confederation. When Belgium seceded from the Kingdom of the Netherlands, 1830, Luxembourg was forced to cede its greater western section to Belgium. The tiny duchy left the German Confederation In 1867 when the Treaty of London recognized it as an independent state and guaranteed its perpetual neutrality. Luxembourg was occupied by Germany and liberated by American troops In both World Wars.

This is a one hundred Francs coin issued in 1946 to commemorate the 600th anniversary of Jean the Blind. The obverse has Prince Jean. The reverse has a mounted Jean charging. Weighs 27 grams of 0.835 fineness.



Established by the Portuguese in 1557 Macao is the oldest European settlement in the Far East. In 1513, Jorge Álvares became the first Portuguese to land in China. In 1535, Portuguese traders obtained the rights to anchor ships in Macao's harbors and to carry out trading activities, though not the right to stay onshore. Around 1552–1553, they obtained temporary permission to erect storage sheds onshore, in order to dry out goods drenched by sea water; they soon built rudimentary stone houses around the area now called Nam Van. The Chinese, while agreeing to Portuguese settlement, did not recognize Portuguese sovereign rights and the Portuguese remained largely under control of the Chinese until 1849, when the Portuguese abolished the Chinese customhouse and declared the independence of the port. The Portuguese paid an annual rent of 500 taels (18.9 kilograms / 41.6 pounds) of silver. The Manchu government formally recognized the Portuguese right to perpetual occupation of Macao in 1887. In 1987, Portugal and China agreed that Macao would become a Chinese Territory in 1999. In December of 1999, Macao became a special administrative zone of China. It is located across the Pearl; River from Hong Kong.

This is a one hundred Patacas coin issued to commemorate Macao's return to China. The obverse has the arms of Portuguese Macao. The reverse has a Portuguese caraval and Chinese junk. The gold inlay shoes the Gao Temple. Weighs 31.1 grams of 0.925 finess.



The Republic of Malta, an independent parliamentary democracy, is situated in the Mediterranean Sea between Sicily and North Africa. For more than 3,500 years Malta was ruled, in succession by Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Arabs, Normans, the Knights of Malta, France and Britain. Napoleon seized Malta by treachery in 1798. The French were ousted by a Maltese insurrection assisted by Britain, and in 1814 Malta, of its own free will, became a part of the British Empire. Malta obtained full independence in Sept., 1964; electing to remain within the Commonwealth with the British monarch as the nominal head of state.
Malta became a republic on Dec. 13, 1974, but remained a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The president is Chief of State. The prime minister is the Head of Government.

This is a two Maltese Pounds coin of 1972. The obverse has Malta's arms whilst the reverse pictures Fort St. Angelo. Weighs 20 grams of 0.987 fineness.



The Republic of Mauritius is located in the Indian Ocean 500 miles (805 km.) east of Madagascar. It was a British colony. Mauritius became independent on March 12, 1968. It Is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.

This is a ten Rupee coin minted in 1977 to commemorate independence. Obverse has Queen Elizabeth II. Reverse has the extinct dodo bird. Weighs 29 grams of 0.925 fineness.



The Duchy of Mecklenburg was divided in 1592 to form the branches of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Gustrow. During the Thirty Years' War, the several dukes of the Mecklenburg states sided with the Protestant forces against the emperor. Albrecht von Wallenstein, Duke of Friedland and imperial general, ousted the Mecklenburg dukes from their territories in 1628. The rightful rulers were each restored to their lands in 1632. In 1658, Mecklenburg-Schwerin was divided by the tour sons of Adolf Friedrich into the lines of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Mecklenburg-Grabow. Mecklenburg-Mirow (extinct in 1675) and Mecklenburg-Strelitz (see). Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Gostrow fell extinct in the male line in 1692 and 1695 respectively, becoming a source of dispute between Mecklenburg-Grabow and Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Both parties finally agreed to a settlement in 1701 which awarded about eighty percent of all Mecklenburg territory to Grabow, which became the main Schwerin line, and the rest to Strelitz. No coinage was produced for Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 1708 until 1750. In 1815, the Congress of Vienna elevated the ruler to the rank of Grand Duke. Mecklenburg-Schwerin became a part of the German Empire in 1871. The last grand duke abdicated at the end of World War I in 1918.

This five mark coin was issued in 1904 to celebrate the marriage of Friedrich Franz, Grand Duke to Alexandra. The coin was minted at the Berlin Mint (mintmark A). Weighs 27.8 grams of 0.900 fineness.



Mexico was the site of highly advanced Indian civilizations 1,500 years before conquistador Hernando Cortes conquered the wealthy Aztec empire of Montezuma, 1519-21, and founded a Spanish colony which lasted for nearly 300 years. During the Spanish period, Mexico, then called New Spain, stretched from Guatemala to the present states of Wyoming and California, its present northern boundary having been established by the secession of Texas during 1836 and the war of 1846-48 with the United States.Independence from Spain was declared by Father Miguel Hidalgo on Sept. 16, 1810, (Mexican Independence Day) and was achieved by General Agustin de Iturbide in 1821. Iturbide became emperor in 1822 but was deposed when a republic was established a year later. For more than fifty years following the birth of the republic, the political scene of Mexico was characterized by turmoil which saw two emperors (including the unfortunate Maximilian), several dictators and an average of one new government every nine months passing swiftly from obscurity to oblivion. The land, social, economic and labor reforms promulgated by the Reform Constitution of Feb. 5, 1917 established the basis for sustained economic development and participative democracy that have made Mexico one of the most politically stable countries of modern Latin America.

This an eight Reales piece struck in Mexico City around 1668 during the reign of Charles II. These rough coins were called "cobs" as they were cut from rough bars (the Spanish word was coba de barra.  Weighs 27 grams of 0.931 fineness.

This is an example of the famed "piece of eight." This is called the Pillars type as the obverse features the Pillars of Hercules at the mouth of the Mediterranean Sea. The European pillar is the Rock of Gibraltar, the African pillar is Morocco's Jebel Musa .The ribbons read PLUS ULTRA (More Beyond). This coin was minted in 1759. This was a very commercially successful coinage as they were accepted throughout the world because of silver quality. Sometimes you find these coins wirh Chinese characters called chopmarks stamped into the coin to attest to its quality.. Assayer's initial M is or Manuel de la Peña. It was known as the Pillar dollar and ad the Spanish Milled Dollar. Weighs 27 grams of 0.9170 fineness.

This is a Royalist eight Reales coin minted in Durango in 1821. The obverse has King Ferdinand VII and the reverse has the Spanish arms (The D is the mintmark for Durango, the C.G. is the assayers initials). Weighs 27.07 grams of 0.896 fineness.

The Chihuahua Mint was established by a decree of October 8, 1810 as a temporary mint. Their first coins were cast 8 Reales using Mexico City coins as patterns and obliterating/ changing the mint mark and rnoneyer initials. two countermarks were placed on the obverse - on the left, a T designating receipt by the Royal Treasurer, crowned pillars of Hercules on the right with pomegranate beneath, the comptrollers symbol. The coin used for the mold was an 1811 piece. The obverse has a T to the left and pillars to the right counterstamps. The reverse has the mintmark CA and the assayer's initials R.P.

Mexico revolted against Spain in 1810. The war continued into the 1820s. After independence, the victor Gen. Augustin de Iturbide seized power and declared himself Emperor Agustin I of Mexico. He was deposed in 1823 and a republic was established. This eight Reales coin was minted in Mexico City in 1822. Weighs 27 grams of 0.903 fineness.

This is a Republic eight reales piece minted in Durango in 1833. The obverse has a radiant Liberty cap with *8 R.Do.1833.R.M.10 Ds.20 Gs (8 Reales Do (Durango) assayers' initials 10 Dineros 20 Grams). The reverse has the Mexican eagle. This series was issued for several years from many different mints including As Alamos, Ca Chihuahua, CE Real de Catorce, Cn Culiacan, EoMo Estado de Mexico, Ga Guadalajara, GC Guadalupe y Calvo, Go Guanajuato, Ho Hermosillo, Mo Mexico City, Oa Oaxaca, Pi San Luis Potosi, and Zs Zacatecas. Weighs 27.07 grams of 0.903 fineness.

In 1866 there was a group of elites who wanted to reinstitute a Mexican Empire. They invited Maximilian, the younger brother of Emperor Franz Josef of Austria to accept the crown. Maximilian and his wife Carlota journeyed to Mexico and were crowned on 10 April 1864. They were deposed in 1867 and Maximilian was executed. This is a Peso coin minted in Potosi in  1866. Weighs 27 grams of 0.903 fineness.

This is a Mexican one Peso coin minted at the Guanajuato mint. The obverse has a radiant Liberty cap over a scale with a panel inscribed LEY (Law), the denomination, the mintmark, the assayer (S) and the fineness 0.9027. Weighs 27.07 grams of 0.903 fineness.

This is a Republic one Peso piece minted in Culiacan in 1898. The design is about the same as the old eight reales coins. The obverse has a radiant Liberty cap with *UN PESO.CN 1899.A.M.902,7(One Peso mintmark assayer initials and the fineness). The reverse has the Mexican eagle. This coin has a coupe of Chinese chops on the reverse. Weighs 27.07 grams of 0.9027 fineness.

This is the last of the full size silver Mexican one Peso coin. It is commonly called the Caballito Peso. The obverse has a mounted Liberty and the date 1910. Weighs 27.07 grams of 0.903 fineness.

This is a Mexican two Peso coin issued to commemorate the centenary of Mexican independence in 1921. Weighs 26.67 grams of 0.900 fineness.



The Principality of Monaco is located on the Mediterranean coast nine miles from Nice. Monaco derives its name from Monoikos: the Greek surname for Hercules, the mythological strong man who, according to legend, formed the Monacan headland during one of his twelve labors. Monaco has been ruled by the Grimaldi dynasty since 1297 - Prince Albert II, the present and 32nd monarch of Monaco, is still of that line - except for a period during the French Revolution until Napoleon's downfall when the Principality was annexed to France. Since 1865, Monaco has maintained a customs union with France which guarantees its privileged position as long as the royal line remains intact. Under the new constitution proclaimed on December 17, 1962, the Prince shares his power with an 18-member unicameral National Council.

This is a 10 Francs coin issued in 1966. The obverse has Prince Charles III. The reverse has the Monacoan arms. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.



The State of Mongolia, (formerly the Mongolian People's Republic) is a landlocked country in central Asia between Russia and the People's Republic of China. Mongolia (often referred to as Outer Mongolia), one of the world's oldest countries, attained its greatest power in the 13th century when Genghis Khan and his successors conquered all of China and extended their influence westward as far as Hungary and Poland. The empire dissolved in later centuries and in 1691 was brought under suzerainty of the Manchus, who had conquered China in 1644. Afterward the Chinese republican movement led by Sun Yat-sen overthrew the Manchus and set up the Chinese Republic in 1911. Mongolia, with the support of Russia, proclaimed their independence from China and, on March 13, 1921 a Provisional People's Government was established and later, on Nov. 26, 1924 the government proclaimed the Mongolian People's Republic. Although nominally a dependency of China, Outer Mongolia voted at a plebiscite Oct. 20, 1945 to sever all ties with China and become an independent nation. Opposition to the communist party developed in late 1989 and after demonstrations and hunger strikes, the Politburo resigned on March 12, 1990 and the new State of Mongolia was organized. On Feb. 12, 1992 it became the first to discard communism as the national political system by adopting a new constitution.

This is a one Tugrik coin minted in 1925. Weighs 20 grams of 0.900 fineness.



Morocco's strategic position at the gateway to Western Europe has been the principal determinant of its violent, frequently unfortunate history. Time and again the fertile plain between the rugged Atlas Mountains and the sea has echoed the battle's trumpet as Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, Visigoths, Byzantine Greeks and Islamic Arabs successively conquered and occupied the land. Modern Morocco Is remnant of an early empire formed by the Arabs at the close of the 7th century, which encompassed all of northwest Africa, and most of the Iberian Peninsula. During the 17th and 18th centuries, while under the control of native dynasties, it was the headquarters of the famous Sale pirates. Morocco's strategic position involved it In the competition of 19th century European powers for political Influence in Africa, and resulted in the division of Morocco into French and Spanish spheres of interest, which were established as protectorates in 1912. Morocco became independent on March 2, 1956, alter France agreed to end its protectorate. Spain signed similar agreements on April 7 of the same year. Tangiers remained as an international city until October 29, 1956. The Spanish retained two enclaves, Ceuta and Melilla.

This is a 10 Dirhems/1 Rial piece dated 1336 AH (1918 AD). It was minted at the Paris Mint. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.


After being a part of Charlemagne's empire in the 8th and 9th centuries, the Netherlands came under control of Burgundy and the Austrian Hapsburgs, and finally was subjected to Spanish dominion in the 16th century. Led by William of Orange, the Dutch revolted against Spain in 1568. The seven northern provinces formed the Union of Utrecht and declared their Independence in 1581, becoming the Republic of the United Netherlands. In the following century, the Golden Age of Dutch history, the Netherlands became a great sea and colonial power, a patron of the arts and a refuge for the persecuted. The United Dutch Republic ended in 1795 when the French formed the Batavian Republic. Napoleon made his brother Louis, the King of Holland in 1806, however he abdicated in 1810 when Napoleon annexed Holland. The French were expelled in 1813, and all the provinces of Holland and Belgium were merged Into the Kingdom of the United Netherlands under William I, In 1814. The Belgians withdrew in 1830 to form their own kingdom, the last substantial change In the configuration of European Netherlands.


This silver Lion 48 Stuivers daalder from the Netherlands is dated 1648. The obverse features an armored knight looking to the right above a shield bearing the likeness of a lion withy the date 1648 at the top. The reverse design features a rampant lion looking to the left. Weighs 20 grams of 0.885 fineness.


This silver Lion 48 Stuivers daalder from the Netherlands is dated 1576. The obverse features an armored knight looking to the right above a shield bearing the likeness of a lion with the date c1576 at the bottom. The reverse design features a rampant lion looking to the left. Weighs 20 grams of 0.885 fineness.

This is a two and one half Guilder minted in 1851. The obverse features King Willem III. The reverse has the Dutch coat-of-arms. Weighs 25 grams of 0.945 fineness.



The Netherlands as an entity perhaps came into being when Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy (1419-1467) called all the Burgundian states together for a common session at Bruges in 1464. Charles the Bold continued to add to the territory and consolidated his power, which, however reverted to the States General at his death in 1477. His daughter Mary married the Austrian archduke Maximilian, and was succeeded by her only son, Philip the Handsome (1494-1506). He married Joanna of Spain, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, and their oldest son, Charles V, became king of Aragon and Castile in 1520, head of the Austrian house of Habsburg, and Holy Roman Emperor. The Netherlands passed under the regency of his aunts Margaret of Austria (1519-30) and Mary of Hungary (1531-55). Philip 11(1556-98) was a Spaniard and resented by many of the Netherlanders, especially the Protestants and the higher nobility and clergy. The ruthless savagery of his governor the duke of Alba led to continued revolts, and finally to the Pacification of Ghent 1576, a union which was short lived. By the Union of Utrecht (1579) the northern provinces to all intents and purposes were separated from the southern ones.

The Spanish under Farnese, the duke of Parma, gradually regained supremacy in the southern provinces. Philip gave the provinces as dowry when his daughter. Isabella, married the archduke Albert of Austria in 1598. The Spanish Netherlands was to be an independent state based on Catholicism as the only recognized religion, and strong central government. Albert died in 1621 and Isabella in 1633, childless, and the provinces reverted to Philip IV of Spain. War with the United Netherlands and France followed until by the Peace Westphalia, concluding the Thirty Years War in 1648, Philip recognized the independence of the northern states. By the Peace of the Pyrenes in 1659 and the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1668 Louis XIV of France acquired Artois and other border districts. On the death of Charles II in 1700 the southern Netherlands passed to the new Bourbon king of Spain, the French duke Philip of Anjou. In 1701, Louis XlV compelled his grandson to turn the territory over to France, but by the Treaty of Utrecht  concluding the War of the Spanish Succession, the provinces were given to Austria.. These provinces are pretty much today's territory of Belgium.

This is a Ducaton issued n Brabant in 1640. The obverse has Philip IV. The mintmark a hand, denoting the Anvers Mint, us located in the middle of the date. The reverse has the coat-of-arms of the Spanish Netherlands. Weighs 32,5 grams of 0.944 fineness.



Netherlands East Indies, (Kingdom of the Netherlands) is the world's largest archipelago extending for more than 3,000 mi. along the equator from the mainland of southeast Asia to Australia. At present time, since the late 1940's, it is known as Indonesia. The Dutch were in control until 1942 when the Japanese invaded. At the end of World War II, with Japanese encouragement, Indonesia declared its independence.
World War II Coinage Netherlands and Netherlands East Indies coins of the 1941-45 period were struck at U.S. Mints (P - Philadelphia, D - Denver, S - San Francisco) and bear the mint mark and a palm tree (acorn on Homeland issues) flanking the date.

This is a two and one half Guilder coin minted at Denver. The obverse has the image of Queen Wilhelmina and the reverse the Dutch arms. The coin bears no reference to the Netherlands Indies but was issued for that entity after liberation from the Japanese occupiers. Weighs 25 grams of 0.720 fineness.



The New Hebrides were discovered by Portuguese navigator Pedro de Quiros in 1606, visited by French explorer Bougainville in 1768, and named by British navigator Capt. James Cook in 1774. Ships of all nations converged on the Islands to trade for sandalwood, prompting France and Britain to relinquish their Individual claims and declare the Islands a neutral zone in 1878. The New Hebrides were placed under the control of a mixed Anglo-French commission of naval officers during the native uprisings of 1887, until achieving independence as Vanuatu, within the Commonwealth of nations on September 30, 1980.

This one hundred Francs coin was minted in 1966 in Paris. The obverse has a likeness of Marianne, symbolizing Liberty. The reverse has a native scepter. Weighs 25 grams of 0.835 fineness.


Now Zealand is a parliamentary state located in the Southwest Pacific 1,250 miles (2,011 km.) east of Australia. The first European to sight New Zealand was the Dutch navigator Abel Tasman in 1642. The islands were explored by British navigator Capt. James Cook who surveyed it in 1769 and annexed the land to Great Britain. The British government disavowed the annexation and for the next 70 years the only white settlers to arrive were adventurers attracted by the prospects of lumbering, sealing and whaling. Great Britain annexed the land in 1840 by treaty with the native chiefs and made it a dependency of New South Wales. The colony was granted self-government in1852, a ministerial form of government in 1856, and full dominion status on Sept. 26, 1907 Full internal and external autonomy, which New Zealand had in effect possessed for many years, was formally extended in 1947 New Zealand is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Elizabeth Ills Head of State as Queen of New Zealand. Prior to 1933 British coins were the official legal tender but Australian coins were accepted in small transactions. Currency fluctuations caused a distinctive New Zealand coinage to be introduced in 1933. The 1935 Waitangi crown and proof set were originally intended to mark the introduction but delays caused their date to be changed to 1935. The 1940 half crown marked the centennial of British rule, the 1949 and 1953 crowns commemorated Royal visits and the 1953 proof set marked the coronation of Queen Elizabeth.

This is a five shilling piece minted in 1949 to celebrate the proposed Royal Visit. Weighs 28 grams of 0.500 fineness.



The Kingdom of Norway (Norge, Noreg) is a constitutional monarchy located in northwestern Europe including the island territories of Spitzbergen (Svalbard) and Jan Mayen. A united Norwegian kingdom was established in the 9th century, the era of the indomitable Norse Vikings who ranged far and wide, visiting the coasts of northwestern Europe, the Mediterranean, Greenland and North America. In the 13th century the Norse kingdom was united briefly with Sweden, then passed through inheritance in 1380 to the rule of Denmark which was maintained until 1814. In 1814 Norway fell again under the rule of Sweden. The union lasted until 1905 when the Norwegian Parliament arranged a peaceful separation and invited a Danish prince (King Haakon VII) to ascend the throne of an Independent Kingdom of Norway.

This is the only silver crown-sized coin issued by Norway. This twenty-five kroner piece was minted in 1970 to celebrate the 25th anniversary of victory in World War II. The obverse has conjoined busts of Haakon VII (the war king) and Olav V (then king). The reverse commemorate the victory on 8 May 1945. Weighs 29 grams of 0.875 fineness.



The Republic of Panama, a Central American Country situated between Costa Rica and Colombia. Discovered in 1501 by the Spanish conquistador Rodrigo Galvan de Bastidas, the land of Panama was soon explored and after a few attempts at settlement was successfully colonized by the Spanish. It was in Panama in 1513 that Vasco Nunez de Balboa became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean. The first Pacific-coast settlement, founded in 1519 on the site of a village the natives called Panama, was named Nuestra Senora de Ia Asuncion de Panama (Our Lady of the Assumption of Panama). The settlement soon became a city and eventually, albeit briefly, an Audiencia (judicial tribunal).

In 1578 the city of Panama, being a primary transshipment center for treasure and supplies to and from Spain's South Pacific-coast colonies, was chosen for a new mint, and minting had begun there by 1580. By late 1582 or 1583 production was halted, possibly due to the fact that there were no nearby silver mines to sustain it. In it's brief operation, the Panama Mint must not have made many coins, as the corpus of surviving specimens known today from this colonial mint is less than 40. The city of Panama, known today as the Old City of Panama, was sacked and burned in 1671 by the famous Henry Morgan in one of the greatest pirate victories against the Spanish Main.

Panama declared its independence in 1821 and joined the Confederation of Greater Colombia. In 1903, after Colombia rejected a treaty enabling the United States to build a canal across the Isthmus, Panama with the support of the United States proclaimed its independence from Colombia and became a sovereign republic.

This was the first crown issued by the republic of Panama in 1904. The coin is the exact same specification as the U.S. dollar except it is denominated at fifty centavos! Obverse has Balboa. Reverse has the arms of Panama. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This was the second  crown issued by the republic of Panama in 1931 was minted at the San Francisco Mint. Obverse has Balboa and the denomination. . Reverse has a standing woman with the country's name, date, and weight and legal finess.  Weighs 26.73 grams of 0.900 fineness.



The Republic of Paraguay is a landlocked country in the heart of South America surrounded by Argentina, Bolivia and Brazil. Paraguay was first visited by a ship-wrecked Spaniard named Alejo Garcia, in 1524. The interior was explored by Sebastian Cabot in 1527 and 1528, when he sailed up the Parana and Paraguay rivers. Asuncion, which would become the center of a Spanish colonial province embracing much of southern South America, was established by the Spanish explorer Juan de Salazar on Aug. 15, 1537. For 150 years the history of Paraguay was largely the history of the agricultural colonies established by the Jesuits in the south and east to Christianize the Indians. In 1811, following the outbreak of the South American wars of independence, Paraguayan patriots over-threw the local Spanish authorities and proclaimed their country's independence. During the Triple Alliance War (1864-1870) in which Paraguay faced Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, Asuncion's ladies gathered in an Assembly on Feb. 24, 1867 and decided to give up their Jewelry in order to help the national defense. The President of the Republic, Francisco Solano Lopez accepted the offering and ordered one twentieth of it be used to mint the first Paraguayan gold coins according to the Decree of the 11th of Sept.1967.

This 1889 one peso coin was a single year issue and is the only classical crown of this country. The obverse has the nation's coat of arms. The reverse has the usual facing lion with a pole holding a liberty cap to the rear.  Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This a three hundred Guaranies coin minted inn 1968. The reverse has a bust of President Stroessner. Weighs 26.6 grams of 0.720 fineness.



Persia  now known as Iran (since 1936) is located between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf in southwestern Asia. Iran (historically known as Persia until 1931AD) is one of the world's most ancient and resilient nations. Strategically astride the lower land gate to Asia, it has been conqueror and conquered, sovereign nation and vassal state, ever emerging from its periods of glory or travail with its culture and political individuality intact. Iran (Persia) was a powerful empire under Cyrus the Great (600-529 B.C.), its borders extending from the Indus to the Nile. It has also been conquered by the predatory empires of antique and recent times - Assyrian, Medean, Macedonian, Seljuq, Turk, Mongol - and more recently been coveted by Russia, the Third Reich and Great Britain. Revolts against the absolute power of the Persian shahs resulted in the establishment of a constitutional monarchy in 1906. The last Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlevi was overthrown by Mohammedan radicals in 1979 after which the Islamic Republic was established.

This is a 5000 Dinar or 5 Kran piece minted in 1320 AH (1903 AD) under Muzaffar al-Din Shah. Weighs 23 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is a 5000 Dinar or 5 Kran piece minted in 1332 AH (1914 AD) under Sultan Ahmad Shah. Weighs 23 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is a 5000 Dinar or 5 Kran piece minted in 1306 SH (1927 AD) under Reza Shah. The AH calendar was superseded by the Solar Hijri (SH) calendar. Weighs 23 grams of 0.900 fineness.



The Republic of Peru is located on the Pacific coast of South America. Once part of the great Inca Empire that reached from northern Ecuador to central Chile, the conquest of Peru by Francisco Pizarro began in 1531. Desirable as the richest of the Spanish viceroyalties, it was torn by warfare between avaricious Spaniards until the arrival in 1569 of Francisco de Toledo, who initiated 2½ centuries of efficient colonial rule, which made Lima the most aristocratic colonial capital and the stronghold of Spain's American possessions. Jose de San Martin of Argentina proclaimed Peru's independence on July 28, 1821;Simon Bolivar of Venezuela secured it in December, 1824 when he defeated the last Spanish army in South America. After several futile attempts to re-establish its South American empire, Spain recognized Peru's independence in 1879.
Andres de Santa Cruz, whose mother was a high-ranking Inca, was the best of Bolivia's early presidents, and temporarily united Peru and Bolivia 1836-39, thus realizing his dream of a Peruvian/Bolivian confederation.

This prompted the separate coinages of North and South Peru. Peruvian resistance and Chilean intervention finally broke up the confederation, sending Santa Cruz into exile. A succession of military strongman presidents ruled Peru until Marshall Castilla revitalized Peruvian politics in the mid-19th century and repulsed Spain's attempt to reclaim its one-time colony. Subsequent loss of southern territory to Chile in the War of the Pacific, 1879-81, and gradually increasing rejection of foreign economic domination, combined with recent serious inflation, affected the country numismatically.

As a result of the discovery of silver at Potosi in 1545, a mint was eventually authorized in 1565 with the first coinage taking place in 1568. The mint had an uneven life span during the Spanish Colonial period from 1568-72. It was closed from 1573-76, reopened from 1577-88. It remained closed until 16591660 when an unauthorized coinage in both silver and gold were struck. After being closed in 1660, it remained closed until 1684 when it struck cob style coins until 1752.

This was a Royalist issue minted in Cuzco in 1824. It is one of the last Spanish coins used for its South American colonies. The obverse has Ferdinand VII, King of Spain. The reverse has the Spanish coat-of-arms with the CUZO mintmark. Weighs 27 grams of 0.896 fineness.

This was one of the first crowns struck for Free Peru. It was minted in Lima in 1823. The obverse has a palm tree over the coat-of-arms with PERU - LIBRE - LIMAE - 8R - J - P- 1823. The reverse features the pillar of state flanked by Justice on the left and Liberty on the right  with the motto POR LA VIRTUD Y LA JUSTICIA. Weighs 25 grams of 0.903 fineness.

This 8 reales piece was issued by the North Peruvian State and was minted in Lima in 1837. The obverse has a standing Liberty with the legend FIRME Y FELIZ POR LA UNION. The reverse has the Peruvian coat-of-arms and the legend EST-NOR-PERUANA -  LIMAE - 8R - T -M - 1837. Weighs 27 grams of 0.900 fineness.


This eight Reales coin from the South Peruvian Republic was minted in Cuzco in 1837. The obverse features a radiant Sun with the motto REPUB - SUD PERUANA - 8 - R - CUZCO - 1837. The reverse has a fortress, ship, volcano, and cornucopia within a wreath and the legend FIRME POR LA UNION - 10D20G FEDERACION - B -A. Weighs 27 grams of 0.900 fineness.



The Philippines, an archipelago in the western Pacific 500 miles (805 km.) from the southeast coast of Asia, has an area of 115,830 sq. mi. (300,000 sq. km.). Migration to the Philippines began about 30,000 years ago when land bridges connected the islands with Borneo and Sumatra. Ferdinand Magellan claimed the islands for Spain in 1521. The first permanent settlement was established by Miguel de Legazpi at Cebu April 1565. Manila was established in 1572. A British expedition captured Manila and occupied the Spanish colony in October 1762, but returned it to Spain by the treaty of Paris, 1763. Spain held the Philippines despite growing Filipino nationalism until 1898 when they were ceded to the United States at the end of the Spanish-American War.


The first silver coins meant for circulation in the Philippines were counterstamped 8 reales pieces from American former Spanish colonies. The counterstamp has a crown and the abbreviation on the ruler it was struck under, F-VII- for Ferdinand VII and Y-II- for Isabella II. Weighs 27 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is the only crown sized coin minted specifically for the Philippines. It is a 1 Peso dated 1897. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.


This one Peso piece was minted at the San Francisco Mint in 1903. The obverse features a standing lady holding a hammer over an anvil. To her right is Mt. Mayon, an active volcano. The denomination ONE PESO is at the top and the Spanish FILIPINAS is below. . The reverse has the U.S. Administration arms with UNITED STATES OF AMERICA and the date 1903 (the mintmark S is under the left dot flanking the date). Weighs 26.96 grams of 0.900 fineness. In 1907, the weight was decreased to 20 grams. 


This one Peso coin  was minted in 1936 to commemorate the establishment of the commonwealth on November 15, 1935. The obverse features Governor Frank Murphy and Philippine Senate President Manuel Quezon with the enactment date to the right. The reverse has the Philippine Commonwealth arms. Weighs 20 grams of 0.900 fineness.


This one Peso coin  was minted in 1936 to honor Gen. Douglas MacArthur. The obverse has his image and laudatory legend. The reverse has the republic arms. Weighs 20 grams of 0.900 fineness.



Poland is located in central Europe. Poland, which began as a Slavic duchy in the 10th century and reached its peak of power between the 14th andl6th centuries, has had a turbulent history of invasion, occupation or partition by Mongols, Turkey, Transylvania, Sweden, Austria, Prussia and Russia. The first partition took place in 1772. Prussia took Polish Pomerania, Russia took part of the eastern provinces, and Austria occupied Galicia, in which lay the capital city of Lwów. The second partition occurred in 1793 when Russia took another slice of the eastern provinces and Prussia took what remained of western Poland. The third partition, 1795, literally removed Poland from the map. Russia took what was left of the eastern provinces. Prussia seized most of central Poland, including Warsaw. Austria took what was left of the south. Napoleon restored to Poland much of the territory lost to Prussia and Austria, but after his defeat another partition returned the Duchy of Warsaw to Prussia, made Kracow into a tiny republic, and declared what remained to be the Kingdom of Poland under the czar and in permanent union with Russia.

This technically not a crown but is the largest silver coin minted during the Polish revolution of 1830-1. It is a 5 Polish Złoty minted in Warsaw in 1831. Weighs 15.6 grams of 0.868 fineness.

This crown sized 10 Złoty coin was minted in St. Petersburg in 1835. The obverse has the Russian imperial eagle  with St. George slaying the dragon on the center shield. The shields on the left are for Kazan, Astrakhan, Siberia and on the right are for Finland, Chersoneus Taurica, and Poland The Russian legend ЧИСТАГО СЕРЕБРА 6 ЗОЛОТНИКОВЪ 31½ ДОЛЕЙ translates as Of Pure Silver 6 Zolotnik 31½ Doley. The zolotnik was a Russian weight measurement equal to 4.266 grams. The doley is likewise a weight measurement equal to 1/96th of a zolotnik. The mintmaster Nicolai Grachev's initials НГ flank the eagles ail. The reverse has the denomination 1½ Rublya and 10 Zlot with the date 1835 within an oak an d laurel wreath. Weighs 31.1 grams of 0.868 fineness.



The Portuguese Republic is located in the western part of the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. After centuries of domination by Romans, Visigoths and Moors, Portugal emerged in the 12th century as an independent Kingdom financially and philosophically prepared for the great period of exploration that would soon follow. Attuned to the inspiration of Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460), Portugal's daring explorers of the l5th and 16th centuries roamed the world's oceans from Brazil to Japan in an unprecedented burst of energy and endeavor that culminated in 1494 with Portugal laying claim to half the transoceanic world. Unfortunately for the fortunes of the tiny Kingdom, the Portuguese population was too small to colonize this vast territory. Less than a century after Portugal laid claim to half the world, English, French and Dutch trading companies had seized the lion's share of the world's colonies and commerce, and Portugal's place as an imperial power was lost forever. The monarchy was overthrown in 1910 and a republic was established.
On April 25, 1974, the government of Portugal was seized by a military junta which reached agreements providing for independence for the Portuguese overseas provinces of Portuguese Guinea (Guinea-Bissau), Mozambique, Cape Verde Islands, Angola, and St. Thomas and Prince Islands (Sao Tome and Principe).

This is an one thousand Reis coin minted in 1898 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of the discovery of India. The obverse has conjoined images of King Carlos I and Queen Amelia. The reverse has the coat-of-arms of Royalist Portugal. Weighs 25 grams of 0.917 fineness.

This one Escudo coin was issued by the Republic in 1910 to celebrate the establishment of the Republic on the 5th of October of 1910. The obverse has an image of Liberty holding a torch. The reverse has the Republic arms. Weighs 25 grams of 0.835 fineness.



Elector Friedrich III of Brandenburg-Prussia (1688-1713) was accorded the title of 'King in Prussia" in 1701 as a reward for his support of Austria during the War of the Spanish Succession. Under successive strong leaders, Prussia gained increasing importance and added to its territories to become one of the leading countries of Europe in the course of the 18th century. As part of the reforms instituted by Friedrich III, the system of single letter mintmarks representing specific mints replaced the traditional incorporation of mint officials' symbols and/or initials as part of coin designs. Some of these very same mintmarks are still in use on modern German coins up to the present day. During the Napoleonic Wars (1792-1815), Prussia was allied with Saxony and they were soundly defeated at Jena in 1806. Prussia was forced to cede large portions of its territory at the time, but played a large part in the final defeat of Napoleon. The Congress of Vienna awarded Prussia part of Pomerania, the northern halt of Saxony, much of Westphalia and the Rhineland, thus making it the largest state in Germany and a major power in European affairs. After defeating Denmark in 1864 and Austria in 1866, Prussia acquired Schleswig-Holstein, Hannover, Hesse-Cassel, Nassau and Frankfurt am Main. By this time, Prussia encompassed a large part of German territory and Its population included two-thirds of all the German people. By winning the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71), Prussia became the pivotal state in the unification of Germany in 1871. King Wilhelm I was proclaimed Kaiser (Emperor) of all Germany, but World War I brought an end to both the Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia In 1918.

This Thaler coin was minted in Berlin (mintmark A) in 1818. The obverse has Friedrich Wilhelm III. The reverse has a crowned eagle over crossed flags and cannons. Weighs 22.27 grams of 0.750 fineness.

This Thaler coin was minted in Berlin (mintmark A) in 1861 to commemorate the coronation. The obverse has Wilhelm I and Augusta. The reverse has the German coat-of-arms. Weighs 18.42 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This Thaler coin was minted in Berlin (mintmark A) in 1863. The obverse has Wilhelm I. The reverse has the German coat-of-arms. Weighs 22.27 grams of 0.750 fineness. Someone engraved the date June 21st 1862 on the field of the obverse.

This Thaler coin was minted in Berlin (mintmark A) in 1871 to commemorate the victory over France . The obverse has Wilhelm I. The reverse has a crowned figure of Germania holding a sword. Weighs 22.27 grams of 0.750 fineness. Someone engraved the date June 21st 1862 on the field of the obverse.

This five Mark coin was minted in Hannover (mintmark B) in 1876. The obverse has Wilhelm II, Prussian king. The reverse has the German coat-of-arms. Weighs 27.8 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This five Mark coin was minted in Berlin (mintmark A) in 1888. The obverse has Friedrich III Prussian king who \only reigned only from March to June 1888 due to his passing. The reverse has the German coat-of-arms. Weighs 27.8 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This five Mark coin was minted in Berlin (mintmark A) in 1901 to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the Kingdom of Prussia. The obverse has Friedrich I and Wilhelm II, Prussian kings. The reverse has the German coat-of-arms. Weighs 27.8 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This five Mark coin was minted in Berlin (mintmark A) in 1906. The obverse has Wilhelm II, German Kaiser and Prussian king. The reverse has the German coat-of-arms. Weighs 27.8 grams of 0.900 fineness.



The Commonwealth of Puerto Ricois the eastern-most island of the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Columbus discovered Puerto Rico (Rich Port) and took possession for Spain on November 19, 1493 - the only time Columbus set foot on the soil of what is now a possession of the United States. The first settlement, Caparra, was established by Ponce de Leon in 1508. The early years of the colony were not promising. Considerable gold was found, but the supply was soon exhausted. Efforts to enslave the Indians caused violent reprisals. Hurricanes destroyed crops and homes. French, Dutch, and English freebooters burned the towns. Puerto Rico remained a Spanish possession until 1898, when it was ceded to the United States following the Spanish-American War.

This is the only crown size crowns struck by Spain for its colony of Puerto Rico. It is a one Peso/five Pesetas piece dated 1895. The reverse has the youth bust of King Alfonso XIII. The reverse has the Spanish arms. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness



Romania is a country in southeast Europe. A new constitution was adopted in 1923. During this period In history, the Romanian government struggled with domestic problems, agrarian reform and economic reconstruction. On August 23, 1944, King Mihai I proclaimed an armistice with the Allied Forces. The Romanian army drove out the Germans and Hungarians in northern Transylvania, but the country was subsequently occupied by the Soviet army. That monarchy was abolished on December 30, 1947 and Romania became a "Peoples Republic" based on the Soviet regime. The anti-Communist combative resistance movement developed frequent purges of dissidents: mainly political but also clerical, cultural and peasants. Romanian elite disappeared into the concentration camps. The anti-Communist combative resistance movement developed in spite of the Soviet army presence until 1956. The partisans remained in the mountains until 1964. With the accession of N. Ceausescu to power, Romania began to exercise a considerable degree of independence, refusing to participate in the invasion of Czechoslovakia (August 1968). In 1965, It was proclaimed a "Socialist Republic." After 1977, an oppressed and impoverished domestic scene worsened. On December 17, 1989, an anti-Communist revolt in Timisoara. On December 22, 1989 the Communist government was overthrown. Ceausescu and his wife were arrested and later executed. The new government established a republic, the constitutional name being Romania.

This five Lei was minted in Bucharest in 1880. The obverse has King Carol I. The reverse has the coat-of-arms. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness



Contemporary Russian history began in March of 1917 when Tsar Nicholas II abdicated under pressure and was replaced by a provisional government composed of both radical and conservative elements. This government rapidly lost ground to the Bolshevik wing of the Socialist Democratic Labor Party which attained power following the Bolshevik Revolution Which began on Nov. 7, 1917. After the Russian Civil War, the regional governments, national states and armies became federal republics of the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic. 

This one ruble coin was minted in  1921. The obverse has the arms of the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic with the Russian legend ПРОЛЕТАРИИ ВСЕХ СТРАН, СОЕДИНЯЙТЕСЬ! (proletarians of all countries, unite!). The reverse has a star with the figure 1 and the date all within a wreath with РУБЛЬ (ruble) at top.Weighs 20 grams of 0.900 fineness.



The first Russian dynasty was founded in Novgorod by the Viking Rufik in 862 AD. under Yaroslav the Wise (1019-54). The subsequent Kievan state became one of the great commercial and cultural centers of Europe before falling to the Mongols of the Batu Khan, 13th century, who were suzerains of Russia until late in the 15th century when Ivan III threw off the Mongol yoke. The Russian Empire was enlarged, solidified and westernized during the reigns of Ivan the Terrible, Peter the Great and Catherine the Great, and by 1881 extended to the Pacific and into Central Asia. Contemporary Russian history began in March of 1917 when Tsar Nicholas II abdicated under pressure and was replaced by a provisional government composed of both radical and conservative elements. This government rapidly lost ground to the Bolshevik wing of the Socialist Democratic Labor Party which attained power following the Bolshevik Revolution which began on Nov. 7, 1917. After the Russian Civil War, the regional governments, national states and armies became federal republics of the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic. These autonomous republics united to form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics that was established as a federation under the premiership of Lenin on Dec. 30, 1922. In the Fall of 1991, events moved swiftly in the Soviet Union. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania won their independence and were recognized by Moscow, Sept. 6. The Commonwealth of Independent States was formed Dec. 8, 1991 in Minsk by Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. It was expanded at a summit Dec. 21, 1991 to include 11 of the 12 remaining republics (excluding Georgia) of the old U.S.S.R.

This is an one Ruble coin minted in St. Petersburg (mintmark СПБ) in 1764. The obverse has Empress Catherine II. The legend reads Б М ЕКАTЕРИНА II IМП IСАМОД ВСЕРОC (Catherine II Empress of all Russias). The reverse has the coat of arms, МОНЕТА РУБЛЬ (Ruble Money), the mintmaster's inirials ЯI (Yakov Ivanov) and the date 1764. Weighs 24 grams of 0.750 fineness.


This is an one Ruble coin minted in St. Petersburg (mintmark СПБ) in 1817. The obverse has the imperial arms with the mintmaster Pavel Stupitzun (ПС) encircled by the legend * МОНЕТА * РУБЛЬ * (ruble money) and the date 1817. The reverse has the legend ЧИСТАГО СЕРЕБРА 4 ЗОЛОТН 21 ДОЛЯ (Pure Silver 4 zolotniks 21 dolyas) and С. П. Б. (mintmark) encircled by a crowned wreath. Weighs 20.73 grams of 0.868 fineness.

This is an one Ruble coin minted in St. Petersburg (mintmark СПБ) in 1913 to commemorate the 300th anniversary of the Romanov Dynasty.  The obverse has image of then czar Nikolas II in m ilitary uniform and the first Romanov czar Michael I in Royal robes and Monomakh's Cap . The reverse has the imperial arms with РУБЛЬ (ruble) at the top and the dates 1613-1913 at the bottom. This is the second of two types of this coin, the first has a much weaker image of Michael I. Weighs 20 grams of 0.900 fineness. 



From about the time of Charlemagne, the term Saxony covered most of what is the northwestern part of modern day Germany. It roughly covered the area between the River Ems, the North Sea, the Eider and Elbe Rivers, extending to the southern slopes of the Harz Mountains, bordering Franconia, but not as far as the Rhine. The early Saxon tribes were pagans who, upon conquest by the Franks, became the nucleus of a buffer state between that empire and the heathen Slav peoples to the east.

The first Margrave of Saxony was Ludolf, named in 850 to defend the frontier, and recognized as founder of the Liudolfinger dynasty. His grandson acquired Thuringia (Thurinngen) in 908 and was raised to the rank of duke in 911. The dynasty furnished the Saxon line of German kings and emperors beginning with Heinrich I the Fowler in 919 and up to Heinrich II, who died in 1024. A relative of the dynasty was delegated to rule Saxony and founded the Billung dynasty of dukes in 961. In 1260, Saxony was divided into Saxe-Lauenburg (Northern or Lower Saxony, which see) and Saxe-Wittenberg, also known as Upper Saxony, the southern part of the territory ruled by the Billungers.

This is a one Thaler piece dated 1592. The obverse has the three brothers Christian II, Johann Georg I, and August. The mintmark HB is at the reverse top. The reverse has the coat-of-arms. Weighs 29 grams of 0.???5 fineness

This is a five Mark coin minted in 1876 at the  Muldenhutten Mint )mintmark E). The obverse features the bust of King Albert (1873-1902) with his title in German. The reverse has the German arms. The coin weighs 27.78 grams at 0.900 fineness.

This is a five Mark coin minted in 1903 at the  Muldenhutten Mint )mintmark E). The obverse features the bust of King Georg (1902-1904) with his title in German. The reverse has the German arms. The coin weighs 27.78 grams at 0.900 fineness.



Serbia emerged as a separate kingdom in the 12th century and attained its greatest expansion and political influence in the mid-14th century. After the Battle of Kosovo, 1389, Serbia became a vassal principality of Turkey and remained under Turkish suzeranity until it was re-established as an independent kingdom by the 1887 Treaty of Berlin. Following World War I, which had its immediate cause in the assassination of Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand by a Serbian nationalist, Serbia joined with the Croats and Slovenes to form the new Kingdom of the South Slavs with Peter I of Serbia asking. The name of the kingdom was later changed to Yugoslavia. Invaded by Germany during World War II, Serbia emerged as a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

This is a 5 Dinara piece minted in 1904. The obverse has conjoined busts of Peter I and Karageorge to celebrate 100 years of the dynasty. Weighs 25 grams of 0.835 fineness



The Republic of Seychelles, an archipelago of 85 granite and coral islands situated in the Indian Ocean 600 miles (965 km.) northeast of Madagascar. Among these islands are the Aldabra islands, the Farquhar Group, and ile Desroches, which the United Kingdom ceded to the Seychelles upon its independence. 

Although the Seychelles is marked on Portuguese charts of the early 16th century, the first recorded visit to the islands, by an English ship, occurred in 1609. The Seychelles were annexed to France by Captain Lazare Picault in 1743 and permanently settled in 1768, with the intention of establishing spice plantations to compete with the Dutch monopoly of the spice trade. British troops seized the islands in 1810, during the Napoleonic Wars; the Treaty of Paris, 1814, formally ceded them to Britain. The Seychelles was a dependency of Mauritius until Aug. 31, 1903, when they became a separate British Crown Colony. The colony was granted limited internal self-government in 1970, and attained independence on June 28, 1976, becoming Britain's last African possession to do so. Seychelles is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. 

This is a 25 Rupees coin issued to commemorate Queen Elizabeth's silver anniversary. The obverse has the image of President James Manchem. Weighs 28.28 grams of 0.925 fineness.



The coast of Sierra Leone was first visited by Portuguese and British slavers in the 15th and 16th centuries. The first settlement, at Freetown, 1787, was established as a refuge for freed slaves within the British Empire, runaway slaves from the United States and Negroes discharged from the British armed forces. The first settlers were virtually wiped out by tribal attacks and disease. The colony was re-established under the auspices of the Sierra Leone Company and transferred to the British Crown in 1807. The interior region was secured and established as a protectorate in 1896. Sierra Leone became independent within the Commonwealth on April 27, 1961, and adopted a republican constitution ten years later. It is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. 

The Sierra Leone Company was the corporate body involved in founding the second British colony in Africa on 11 March 1792 through the resettlement of Black Loyalists who had initially been settled in Nova Scotia (the Nova Scotian Settlers) after the American Revolutionary War. The company came about because of the work of the ardent abolitionists, Granville Sharp, Thomas Clarkson, Henry Thornton, and Thomas's brother, John Clarkson, who is considered one of the founding fathers of Sierra Leone. The Company was the successor to the St. George Bay Company, a corporate body established in 1790 that re-established Granville Town in 1791 for the 60 remaining Old Settlers.The Sierra Leone Company was the successor to the St. George's Bay Company that had been founded in 1790 following a mostly unsuccessful effort by the Committee for the Relief of the Black Poor in 1787 to establish a free settlement for the "Black Poor" of London, many of whom were Black Loyalists, who had escaped and fought for the British following Dunmore's Proclamation during the American War of Independence). The 1787 expedition was made up of 300 of London's Black Poor, 60 English working-class women, and an assortment of white officials, clergy and craftsmen to assist in building the colony – 411 men, women and children in all. Upon landing, they founded Granville Town as their base. This first colony only lasted about two and a half years, decimated by disease and later abandonment. The coup de grace occurred in 1789, when the neighboring Temne people burned the settlement during a dispute between the Temne and slave traders.[1] Although Granville Town was re-founded in 1791 under the auspices of Alexander Falconbridge, this settlement was not the basis for the colony or settlement established by the Company in March, 1792.

This is an one dollar coin minted in 1791 by Matthew Boulton and issued in 1792. It is believed to be the fitsy dollar deno,inated coin in the world. Weighd 25/7 grams of 0.903 finesness. 



The Slavs arrived in the territory of present-day Slovakia in the 5th and 6th centuries. In the 7th century, they played a significant role in the creation of Samo's Empire and in the 9th century established the Principality of Nitra. In the 10th century, the territory was integrated into the Kingdom of Hungary, which itself became part of the Habsburg Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. After World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Slovaks and Czechs established Czechoslovakia. 

After the Munich Agreement and its Vienna Award, Nazi Germany threatened to annex part of Slovakia and allow the remaining regions to be partitioned by Hungary or Poland unless independence was declared. Thus, Slovakia seceded from Czechoslovakia in March 1939 and allied itself, as demanded by Germany, with Hitler's coalition. Secession had created the first Slovak state in history. The government of the First Slovak Republic, led by Jozef Tiso and Vojtech Tuka, was strongly influenced by Germany and gradually became a puppet regime in many respects.

In 1945, Czechoslovakia was reestablished under communist rule as a Soviet satellite. Slovakia became an independent state on 1 January 1993 after the peaceful dissolution of Czechoslovakia.

This 34mm coin is a 50 Korun piece minted in 1944. to celebrate the 5th year of the founding of the Slovak Republic. The obverse has the bust of Slovak President Father Josef Tiso with the Slovak language motto "Staying true to oneself-advance together ." The reverse has the national arms flanked with the denomination  with the country's name at top  . Weighs 16.5 grams of 0.700 fineness



Portuguese navigator Bartholomew Diaz became the first European to sight the region of South Africa when he rounded the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, but throughout the 16th century the only white men to come ashore were the survivors of ships wrecked while attempting the stormy Cape passage. Jan van Riebeeck of the Dutch East India Company established the first permanent settlement in 1652. In subsequent decades additional Dutch, German and Huguenot refugees from France settled in the Cape area to form the Afrikaner segment of today's population.

Great Britain captured the Cape colony in 1795, and again in 1806, receiving permanent title in 1814. To escape British political rule and cultural dominance, many Afrikaner farmers (Boers) migrated northward (the Great Trek) beginning in 1836, and established the independent Boer Republics of the Transvaal (the South African Republic, Zuid Afrikaansche Republic) in 1852, and the Orange Free State in 1854. British political intrigues against the two republics, coupled with the discovery of diamonds and gold in the Boer-settled regions, led to the bitter Boer Wars (1880-81, 1899-1902) and the incorporation of the Boer republics into the British Empire.On May 31, 1910, the two former Boer Republics (Transvaal and Orange Free State) were joined with the British colonies of Cape of Good Hope and Natal to form the Union of South Africa, a dominion of the British Empire. In 1934 the Union achieved status as a sovereign state within the British Empire.

This is a 5 shilling coin single shaft type minted in Berlin in 1892. There were two versions. The first erroneously pictured a Boer wagon on the coat-of-arms with a single shaft. The second issue pictures the correct double shaft. Weighs 28 grams of 0.925 fineness



Colonization of Rhodesia began in 1890 when settlers forcibly acquired Shona lands and then Ndebele lands in 1893. It was named as Rhodesia, after Cecil Rhodes who led the buildup of the Colony. Rhodesia became a self-governing colony under the name of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. Consequent upon later political difficulties and disagreement with the British authorities over common emancipation of the people, a unilateral declaration of Independence (UDI) was declared on November 11, 1965. Following United Nations sanctions against the country, various renamings as Rhodesia and Rhodesia-Zimbabwe, and elections in February 1980, the country became independent on April 18, 1980, as the Republic of Zimbabwe as a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The country has become a basket case under the presidency of Robert Mugabe who violated the protections afforded the white farmers upon independence. As could be expected the agricultural economy perished and the breadbasket of Africa became a devastated country. 

This is a five Shillings coin minted in 1953 to celebrate the 199th anniversary of the birth of Cecil Rhodes. Weighs 28 grams of 0.500 fineness



The Sovereign Order of Malta is one of the oldest institutions of Western and Christian civilization. A lay religious order of the Catholic Church since 1113 and a subject of international law, the Sovereign Order of Malta has diplomatic relations with over 100 states and the European Union, and permanent observer status at the United Nations. It is neutral, impartial and apolitical. Today, the Order of Malta is active in 120 countries caring for people in need through its medical, social and humanitarian works. Day-to-day, its broad spectrum of social projects provides a constant support for forgotten or excluded members of society. It is especially involved in helping people living in the midst of armed conflicts and natural disasters by providing medical assistance, caring for refugees, and distributing medicines and basic equipment for survival. It is headquartered in Rome.

This is a two Scudi piece minted in 1965. Weighs 24 grams of 0.986 fineness



The Spanish State forms the greater part of the Iberian Peninsula of southwest Europe and includes the Balearic and the Canary Islands. It isn't known when man first came to the Iberian Peninsula - the Altamira caves off the Cantabrian coast approximately 50 miles west of Santander were fashioned in Paleolithic times. Spain was a battleground for centuries before it became a united nation, fought for by Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Greeks, Celts, Romans, Vandals, Visigoths and Moors. Ferdinand and Isabella destroyed the last Moorish stronghold in 1492, freeing the national energy and resources for the era of discovery and colonization that would make Spain the most powerful country in Europe during the 16th century. Alter the destruction of the Spanish Armada, 1588, Spain never again played a major role In European politics. Forcing Ferdinand to give up his throne and placing him under military guard at Valencia in 1808, Napoleonic France ruled Spain until 1814. When the monarchy was restored in 1814 it continued, only interrupted by the short-lived republic of 1873-74, until the exile of Alfonso XIII In 1931 when the Second Republic was established.

Discontent against the mother country increased after 1808 as colonists faced new imperialist policies from Napoleon or Spanish liberals. The revolutionary movement was established which resulted in the eventual independence of the Vice-royalties of New Spain, New Granada and Rio de la Plata within 2 decades. The doomed republic was trapped in a tug-of-war between the right and left wing forces inevitably resulting in the Spanish CM War of 1936-38. The leftist Republicans were supported by the U.S.S.R. and the International Brigade, which consisted of mainly communist volunteers from all over the western world. The right wing Nationalists were supported by the Fascist governments of Italy and Germany. Under the leadership of Gen. Francisco Franco, the Nationalists emerged victorious and immediately embarked on a program of reconstruction and neutrality as dictated by the new Caudillo" (leader) Franco.
The monarchy was reconstituted in 1947 under the regency of General Francisco Franco; the king designate to be crowned after Franco's death. Franco died on Nov. 20, 1975. iWo days alter his passing, Juan Carlos de Borbon, the grandson of Alfonso XIII, was proclaimed King of Spain.

 This is a twenty Reales coin minted in 1855. The obverse features Queen Isabella II. The reverse has the Spanish arms with the six-pointed star mintmark for Madrid. Weighs 29.29 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is a two Escudos coin minted in 1867. The obverse features Queen Isabella II. The reverse has the Spanish arms with the six-pointed star mintmark for Madrid. Weighs 25.96 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is a five Peseta coin minted in 1870 by the Provisional Government. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness

This is a five Peseta piece minted in 1879 picturing King Amadeo I (1871-1873). Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness

This is a five Peseta piece minted in 1879 picturing King Alfonso XII (1876-1885). Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness

This is a five Pesetas piece minted in 1889 picturing King Alfonso XIII (1886-1931) as a baby. Later versions were minted with a toddler's head and a child's head. He ascended the throne upon his birth as his father had died in late 1885. Until his 16th birthday in 1902, his mother, Maria Christina of Austria, served as his regent, Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness

This is a five Pesetas piece minted in 1889 picturing King Alfonso XIII (1886-1931) as a toddler. Other versions were minted with a baby's head and a child's head. He ascended the throne upon his birth as his father had died in late 1885. Until his 16th birthday in 1902, his mother, Maria Christina of Austria, served as his regent, Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is a five Pesetas piece minted in 1897 picturing King Alfonso XIII (1886-1931) as a youth. Other versions were minted with a baby's head and a toggler's head. He ascended the throne upon his birth as his father had died in late 1885. Until his 16th birthday in 1902, his mother, Maria Christina of Austria, served as his regent, Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.




Straits Settlements, a former British crown colony situated on the Malay Peninsula of Asia, was formed in 1826 by combining the territories of Singapore, Penang and Malacca. The colony was administered by the East India Company until its abolition in 1858. Straits Settlements was a part of British India from 1858 to 1867 at which time it became a Crown Colony. The Straits Settlements were dissolved in 1946, while the coinage continued to circulate until demonetized at the end of 1952.

This is 1 Dollar coin minted for the Straits Settlements in 1907. Weighs 20 grams of 0.900 fineness



The Sudan, site of the powerful Nubian kingdom of Roman times, was a collection of small independent states from the 14th century until 1820-22 when it was conquered and united by Mohammed Ali, Pasha of Egypt. Egyptian forces were driven from the area during the Mahdist revolt, 1881-98, but the Sudan was retaken by Anglo-Egyptian expeditions, 1896-98, and established as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium in 1899 and was called Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. . Britain supplied the administrative apparatus and personnel, but the appearance of joint Anglo-Egyptian administration was continued until Jan. 9, 1954, when the first Sudanese self-government parliament was inaugurated. The Sudan achieved independence on Jan. 1, 1956 with the consent of the British and Egyptian government. In the mid-2000s a civil war broke out as the southern part (largely Christian and pagan), fought the central government (Moslem). In 2011, South Sudan seceded and became independent.

This is a ten pounds coin commemorating the meeting pf the Organization of African Unity in Khartoum. The reverse has the national arms, the denomination and the date in  AD and AH. Weighs 35 grams of 0.935 fineness. 



The Kingdom of Sweden is a limited constitutional monarchy located in northern Europe between Norway and Finland. Olaf Skottkonung founded Sweden as a Christian stronghold late in the 10th century. After conquering Finland late in the 13th century, Sweden, together with Norway, came under the rule of Denmark, 1397-1523, in an association known as the Union of Kalmar. Modern Sweden had its beginning in 1523 when Gustaf Vasa drove the Danes out of Sweden and was himself chosen King. Under Gustaf Adolphus II and Charles XII, Sweden was one of the great powers of 17th century Europe - until Charles invaded Russia in 1708, and was defeated at the Battle of Pultowa in June, 1709. Early in the 18th century, a coalition of Russia, Poland and Denmark took away Sweden's Baltic empire and in 1809 Sweden was forced to cede Finland to Russia. The Treaty of Kiel ceded Norway to Sweden in January 1814. The Norwegians resisted for a time but later signed the Act of Union at the Convention of Moss in August 1814,The Union was dissolved in 1905 and Norway became independent. A new constitution that took effect on Jan. 1, 1975, restricts the function of the king largely to a ceremonial role.

This is a five Kronor coin issued in 1935 to commemorate the 500th anniversary of the Swedish Riksdag (Parliament). The obverse has a bust of Gustav V Swedish King. The reverse has the three crowns arms of Sweden. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness



The Swiss Confederation is located in central Europe north of Italy and south of Germany. Switzerland, the habitat of lake dwellers in prehistoric times, was peopled by the Celtic Helvetians when Julius Caesar made it a part of the Roman Empire in 58 B.C. After the decline of Rome, Switzerland was invaded by Teutonic tribes, who established small temporal holdings which in the Middle Ages, became a federation of fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire. As a nation, Switzerland originated in 1291 when the districts of Nidwalden, Schwyz and Uri united to defeat Austria and attain independence as the Swiss Confederation. Alter acquiring new cantons in the 14th century, Switzerland was made independent from the Holy Roman Empire by the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia. The revolutionary armies of Napoleonic France occupied Switzerland and set up the Helvetian Republic, 1798-1803. After the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna, 1815, recognized the independence of Switzerland and guaranteed its neutrality. The Swiss Constitutions of 1848 and 1874 established a union modeled upon that of the United States.

This is a five Francs Swiss coin minted in 1874 in Brussels (mintmark B.). The obverse has the seated Helvetica. The reverse has the senomination and date within a wreath. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is a five Francs piece minted at Bern (mintmark B) in 1889. This is the second type of Swiss five Francs coins for general circulation. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is a five Francs piece minted at Bern (mintmark B) in 1923. This is the third type of Swiss five Francs coins for general circulation. The obverse has Wilhelm Tell. The reverse has the denominatrion 5 Fr., the national arms flanked by sprigs, and the date and mintmark. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.

This is a five Francs piece minted at Bern (mintmark B) in 1929. This is the fourth type of Swiss five Francs coins for general circulation. The obverse has Wilhelm Tell. The reverse has the denomination 5 FR., the national arms flanked by sprigs, and the date and mintmark. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness.


The Swiss are real believers in having and knowing how to use firearms. Schützenfest, Fête de tir, Tiro Federale are held annually in the various cantons. Shooting Thalers were issued for many of these events from 1842 through 1885 and from 1934 to 1939 when the War broke the tradition. Most were denominated as five francs. The obverses usually depicted allegorical patriotic images. These coins were issued in low mintages and were always highly ornate. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness silver. They were not actually legal tender, but they were equal to the circulating coins in size, denomination and weight. They were accepted as payment at the shooting festival, but often continued to circulate as 5 francs afterwards.

This is the one issued in 1863 for the La Chaux-de-Fonds shooting match. The obverse has decorative arms of the canton of Neuchatel with crossed flags and rifles. The French legend TIR FEDERAL A LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS – JÚILLET 1863 translates as Federal shoot in La Chaux-de-Fonds – July 1863.  The reverse has the same depiction of Helvetica as the circulating 5 franc coins. Mintage was 6000.

This is the one issued in 1865 for the Schaffhausen Canton shooting match. The obverse has the female figure of Helvetia and a young lad probably Wilhelm Tell's son Robert holding an crossbow bolt through an apple. The reverse has the a stylized cantonal arms of a strident ram and the German legend .EIDGENÖSSISCHES SCHÜTZENFEST IN SCHAUFHAUSEN which translates as Federal shoot in Schaffhausen.  Mintage was 10000.

This is the one issued in 1867 for the Schwyz Canton shooting match. The obverse has defiant lion holding a harp with the arms of the canton of Schwyz. The German legend EIDGENÖSSISCHES SCHÜTZENFEST IN SCHWYZ translates as Federal shoot in Schwyz.  The reverse has the same depiction of Helvetica as the circulating 5 franc coins. Mintage was 8000.

This is the one issued in 1872 for the Zurich Canton shooting match. The obverse has Helvetia with the German legend FÜR FREIHIET UND VATERLAND (for freedom and fatherland)..   The reverse has the Swiss rifles and the German legend EIDGENÖSSISCHES SCHÜTZENFEST IN ZURICH translates as Federal shoot in Zurich.. Mintage was 10000.

This is the one issued in 1874 for the St. Gallen Canton shooting match. The obverse has the stylized arms of the canton with a background of mountains. he German legend EIDGENÖSSISCHES SCHÜTZENFEST IN STGALLEN translates as Federal shoot in St.Gallen.  The reverse has the kneeling figure of a fighting knight holding a sword and a flag. The bottom has the dates 1474-1476, so I assume it refers to the Battle of Murat where the Swiss Confederation defeated the French and Burgundian invaders. Mintage was 15000.


This is the one issued in 1876 for the Lausanne shooting match. The obverse with a scene of the city  with TIR FÉDÉRAL DE 1876 LAUSANNE translates as Federal shoot of 1876 Lausanne. The reverse has allegorical depiction of Liberty and Patriotism shaking hands with a fasces and flags in the background. The French legend POUR ETRE FORTS SOYONS UNIS translates as Let us be strong and united.   Mintage was 20000.

This is the one issued in 1879 for the Basel shooting match. The obverse has the arms of Basel surrounded by the cantonal arms of Switzerland. The legend EIDG. SCHÜTZENFEST IN BASEL 1879 translates as Federal shooting festival in Basel 1879. The reverse has an allegorical figure of Landerer (Country) with the German legend DAS SCHWERT ZUR HAND IM HERZEN GOTT SO WIRD D. SCHWEIZER NIE Z. SPOTT translates as With sword in his hand and God in his heart, so will the Swiss never be disgraced. Mintage was 30000.

This is the one issued in 1881 for the Fribourg shooting match. The obverse has a city scene with the legend TIR FÉDÉRAL À FRIBOURG 1881 translates as Federal shoot in Fribourg 1881. The reverse has allegorical figures of citizen soldiers, one with a crossbow and the Fribourg shield  and the other with a battleaxe and the Solothurn shield with Helvetica standing above with a flag. The French legend ENTRÉE DE FRIBOURG & SOLEURE DANS LA CONFÉDÉRATION SUISSE – 1481 translates as Entry of Fribourg and Solothurn into the Swiss Confederation – 1481. Mintage was 30000.

This is the one issued in 1883 for the Lugano shooting match. The obverse has allegorical images of Liberty with the Swiss arms and sword and Tyranny with the  Italian legend LIBERTADE INERME É DE' TIRANNI AGEVOL PREDA translates as Defenseless liberty is easy prey for tyrants. The reverse has decorative arms of Lugano with crossed rifles cand flags. The legend TIRO FEDERALE IN LUGANO 1883 translates as Federal shoot in Lugano 1883. Mintage was 30000.

This is the one issued in 1885 for the Bern shooting match. The obverse has the decorative cantonal arms with crossed rifles with the legend EIDGENÖSSISCHES SCHÜTZENFEST IN BERN 1885 translates as Federal shooting festival in Bern 1885. The reverse has Helvetica with sword, shield and bear behind with the German legend DEM BUND ZUM SCHUTZ DEM FEIND ZUM TRUTZ translates as The Federation to protect, the enemy to defy. Mintage was 25000.

This is the one issued in 1881 for the Fribourg shooting match. The obverse has a citizen-soldier with the French legend TIR FEDERAL FRIBOURG 1934 translates as Federal Shoot Fribourg 1934. The reverse has the cantonal arms with the French legend BON DE 5F REMBOURSABLE - AVANT LE 31 AOUT 1934 translates as Good for 5 Francs Refundable - before 31 August 1934.  Mintage was 40650.


This is the one issued in 1881 for the Lucerne shooting match. The obverse has a crouching citizrn firing a rifle with the German legend EIDGENÖSSISCHES SCHÜTZENFEST IN LUZERN which translates as Shooting Fest Society in Lucerne.  The reverse legend EINLÖSBAR BIS+31.+AUGUST+1939 translates as Unlockable up to 31 August 1939. The central legend EINER FÜR ALLE ALLE FÜR EINEN translates as One for All, All for One. Mintage was 40000.



The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is situated 7 miles (11 km.) off the coast 01 Venezuela. Columbus discovered Trinidad and Tobago in 1498. Trinidad remained under Spanish rule from the time of its settlement in 1592 until its capture by the British in 1797 It was ceded to the British in 1802. Tobago was occupied at various times by the French, Dutch and English before being ceded to Britain in 1814. Trinidad and Tobago were merged into a single colony in 1888. The colony was part of the Federation of the West Indies until Aug. 31, 1962, when it became independent. A new constitution establishing a republican form of government was adopted on Aug. 1, 1976. Trinidad and Tobago is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The President is Chief of State. The Prime Minister is Head of Government.

This a five dollar coin minted by the Franklin Mint in 1972. The obverse has the country's arms. The reverse has a scarlet ibis. Weighs 29.7 grams of 0.935 fineness.



The Republic of Tunisia is located on the northern coast of Africa between Algeria and Libya. Tunisia, settled by the Phoenicians in the 12th century B.C., was the center of the seafaring Carthaginian Empire. After the total destruction of Carthage, Tunisia became part of Rome's African province. It remained a part of the Roman Empire (except for the 439-533 interval of Vandal conquest) until taken by the Arabs, 648, who administered it until the Turkish invasion of 1570. Under Turkish control, the public revenue was heavily dependent upon the piracy of Mediterranean shipping, an endeavor that wasn't abandoned until 1819 when a coalition of powers threatened appropriate reprisal. Deprived of its major source of income, Tunisia underwent a financial regression that ended in bankruptcy, enabling France to establish a protectorate over the country in 1881. National agitation and guerrilla fighting forced France to grant Tunisia internal autonomy in 1955 and to recognize Tunisian Independence on March 20, 1956. Tunisia abolished the monarchy and established a republic on July 25, 1957.

This is a one Dinar coin dated 1969 that was part of a 10 piece proof set honoring Tunisia's ancient history. The obverse has President Habib Bourguiba. The reverse has a Phoenician galley. Weighs 20 grams of 0.925 fineness



The Republic of Turkey is a parliamentary democracy of the Near East located partially in Europe and partially in Asia between the Black and the Mediterranean Seas. The Ottoman Turks, a tribe from Central Asia, first appeared In the early 13th century, and by the 17th century had established the Ottoman Empire which stretched from the Persian Gulf to the southern frontier of Poland, and from the Caspian Sea to the Algerian plateau. The defeat of the Turkish navy by the Holy League in 1571, and of the Turkish forces besieging Vienna in 1683, began the steady decline of the Ottoman Empire which, accelerated by the rise of nationalism, contracted its European border, and by the end of World War I deprived it of its Arab lands. The present Turkish boundaries were largely fixed by the meaty of Lausanne in 1923. The sultanate and caliphate, the political and spiritual ruling institutions of the old empire, were separated and the sultanate abolished in 1922. On Oct. 29, 1923, Turkey formally became a republic under the leadership of Kemal Ataturk. He modernized Turkey, adopting the western alphabet and abandoning Arabic script and secularized the country. .

This is a 20 Kurush piece minted in Constantinople in Year 5 of 1277AH (1843 AD). The obverse has the toughra of Abdul Aziz and the reverse has the denomination, mint, and accession year.  It weighs 24 grams of 0.830 fineness.

This is a 20 Kurush piece minted in Constantinople in Year 9 of 1327AH (1918 AD). The obverse has the toughra of Mohammed V and the reverse has the denomination, mint, and accession year.  It weighs 24 grams of 0.830 fineness.



Portuguese navigator Bartholomew Diaz became the first European to sight the region of South Africa when he rounded the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, but throughout the 16th century the only white men to come ashore were the survivors of ships wrecked while attempting the stormy Cape passage. Jan van Riebeeck of the Dutch East India Company established the first permanent settlement In 1652. In subsequent decades additional Dutch, German and Huguenot refugees from France settled in the Cape area to form the Afrikaner segment of today's population. Great Britain captured the Cape colony in 1795, and again in 1806, receiving permanent title in 1814. To escape British political rule and cultural dominance, many Afrikaner farmers (Boers) migrated northward (the Great Trek) beginning In 1836, and established the Independent Boer Republics of the Transvaal (the South African Republic, Zuid Afrikaansche Republic) in 1852, and the Orange Free State in 1854. British political intrigues against the two republics, coupled with the discovery of diamonds and gold In the Boer-settled regions, led to the bitter Boer Wars (1880-81, 1899-1902) and the Incorporation of the Boer republics into the British Empire. On May 31, 1910, the two former Boer Republics (Transvaal and Orange Free State) were Joined with the British colonies of Cape of Good Hope and Natal to form the Union of South Africa, a dominion of the British Empire. In 1934 the Union achieved status as a sovereign state within the British Empire. Political integration of the various colonies did not still the conflict between the Afrikaners and the English-speaking groups, which continued to have a significant impact on political developments. A resurgence of Afrikaner nationalism in the 1940s and 1950s led to a referendum in the white community authorizing the relinquishment of dominion status and the establishment of a republic. The decision took effect on May 31, 1961. The Republic of South Africa withdrew from the British Commonwealth in Oct. 1961.

This is a five Shilling piece minted in 1948 to celebrate the Royal Visit of King George VI and Queen Mary. The obverse has George VI and the reverse has a Springbok. Weighs 28 grams of 0.800 fineness



Contemporary Russian history began in March of 1917 when Tsar Nicholas II abdicated under pressure and was replaced by a provisional government composed of both radical and conservative elements. This government rapidly lost ground to the Bolshevik wing of the Socialist Democratic Labor Party which attained power following the Bolshevik Revolution Which began on Nov. 7, 1917. After the Russian Civil War, the regional governments, national states and armies became federal republics of the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic. These autonomous republics united to form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics that was established as a federation under the premiership of Lenin on Dec. 30, 1922.

This is a one ruble coin minted in 1924. The obverse has the soviet arms with 6 ribbons flanked by CC CP (USSR). The denomination  ОДИН РУБЛЬ (one ruble) is below. The image is encircled by the legend ПРОЛЕТАРИИ ВСЕХ СТРАН, СОЕДИНЯЙТЕСЬ! (proletarians of all countries, unite!). The six ribbons signify the six constituent republics of the USSR - Russian, Transcaucasian (Georgian, Armenian, Azerbaijani), Ukrainian, Byelorussian, Turkman and Uzbek republics. The reverse has a laborer being led by a party hack to the rising sun, symbolizing the shining new soviet order, which completely failed in 1991. Underneath is the date 1924г (meaning 1924 year).Weighs 20 grams of 0.900 fineness.



This is one of the first USA one dollar coins that were minted in 1794 and 1795 called the Flowing Hair Small Eagle variety. Weighs 27 grams of 0.892 fineness

This example is dated 1797 of the Draped Bust Small Eagle dollar.Weighs 27 grams of 0.892 fineness

This is a 1798 example of the Draped Bust Heraldic Eagle variety. Weighs 27 grams of 0.892 fineness.

This is a 1799 overdate over 8 example of the Draped Bust Heraldic Eagle variety. Weighs 27 grams of 0.892 fineness.

This is a 1802 overdate over 1  example of the Draped Bust Heraldic Eagle variety. Weighs 27 grams of 0.892 fineness.

This is a 1803 Large 3  example of the Draped Bust Heraldic Eagle variety. Weighs 27 grams of 0.892 fineness.

This is the fourth major type of USA dollars, the Seated Liberty series. This example is the first year of issue 1840. The series concluded in 1875. Weighs 27 grams of 0.900 fineness

This was the USA's attempt to replace the Spanish 8 Reales coin that was accepted in the Far East. These were minted from 1873 to 1878 for circulation. Proof versions continued through 1883. Weighs 27 grams of 0.892 fineness



The Oriental Republic 01 Uruguay (so called because of Us location on the east bank of the Uruguay River) is situated on the Atlantic coast of South America between Argentina and Brazil. Uruguay was discovered in 1516 by Juan Diaz de Soils, a Spaniard, but settled by the Portuguese who founded Colony in 1680. Spain contested Portuguese possession and, after a long struggle, gained control of the country in 1778. During the general South American struggle for independence, Uruguay's first attempt was led by Gaucho soldier Jose Gervasio Artigas leading, the Banda Oriental. It was quelled by Spanish and Portuguese forces in 1811. The armistice was soon broken and Argentine force from Buenos Aires cast off the Spanish bond in the Plata region in 1814 only to be conquered again by the Portuguese from Brazil in the struggle of 1816-20. Revolt flared anew in 1825 and Independence was reasserted in 1828 with the help of Argentina. The Uruguayan Republic was established in 1830.

This is an one Peso coin minted in 1895.  The obverse has the national arms of the Republic. They are encircled by the country's official name REPUBLICA ORIENTAL DEL URUGUAY (Eastern Republic of the Uruguay). The reverse has the denomination 1 Peso with in a wreathn ebcircled by the motto LIBRE Y CONSTITUIDA (free and constituted) and the date 1895. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness



The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Little Venice") is located on the northern coast of South America between Colombia and Guyana. Columbus discovered Venezuela on his third voyage in 1498. Initial exploration did not reveal Venezuela to be a land of great wealth. An active pearl trade operated on the offshore Islands and slavers raided the interior in search of Indians to be sold into slavery, but no significant mainland settlements were made before 1567 when Caracas was founded. Venezuela, the home of Bolivar, was among the first South American colonies to rebel against Spain in 1810. The declaration of independence of Venezuela was signed by seven provinces which are represented by the seven stars of the Venezuelan flag. Coinage of Caracas and Margarita use the seven stars in their designs. These original provinces were: Barcelona, Barinas, Caracas, Cumana, Margarita, Merida and Trujillo. The Provinces of Coro, Guyana and Maracaibo were added to Venezuela during the Independence War. Independence was attained in 1821 but not recognized by Spain until 1845. Together with Ecuador, Panama and Colombia, Venezuela was part of Gran Colombia" until 1830, when it became a sovereign and independent state.

This is a 1924 five Bolivar piece, The obverse has Simon Bolivar, The reverse has Venezuela's arms. Weighs 25 grams of 0.900 fineness



Located in South Germany, between Baden and Bavaria, Württemberg takes Its name from the ancestral castle of the ruling dynasty. The early countship was located in the old duchy of Swabia, most of which was given to Count Ulrich 11(1265-79) In 1268 by Conradin von Hohenstaufen. Ulrich's son, Eberhard II (1279-1325) moved the seat of his rule to Stuttgart. Württemberg obtained the mint right in 1374 and Joined the Swabian monetary union two years later. The countship was divided into the lines of Württemberg-Urach and Württemberg-Stuttgart in 1441 and the elder Urach branch was raised to the rank of duke in 1495. It became extinct in the following year and the younger line in Württemberg-Stuttgart inherited the lands and ducal title. A cadet line of the family had been established in Mümpelgard in 1473 and, when the WOrttemberg-Stuttgart line tell extinct in 1593, the primacy of the dynasty tell to Württemberg-Mümpelgard. The latter took the Stuttgart title and spun off several cadet branches In Neustadt, Neuenburg and Weiltingen-Brenz. Meanwhile, the duke in Stuttgart succumbed to the French advances under Napoleon. Land west of the Rhine was exchanged with France for territories in and around Reutlingen, Heilbronn and seven other towns in 1802. More territories were added in Swabia at the expense of Austria in 1805. Napoleon elevated the duke to the status of elector In 1803 and then to king in 1806. Even more land was given to Württemberg that year, doubling the kingdoms size, and it Joined the Confederation of the Rhine. At the close of the Napoleonic Wars (1792-1815), Württemberg Joined the German Confederation, but sided with Austria in Its war with Prussia In 1866. It sided with Prussia against France in 1870 and became a member of the German Empire In 1871. King Wilhelm 11 was forced to abdicate at the end of World War I In 1918.

This is a two Thaler coin minted in 1855. The obverse has King William. The reverse has the denomination stated as both 3½ Gulden and two thaler. Weighs 37.12 grams in 0.900 fineness.

This is a five mark coin minted at the Freundenstadt Mint (mintmark F) in 1908. The obverse has Wilhelm II King of Württemberg. The reverse has the German arms. Weighs 27.8 grams of 0.900 fineness.



One of the oldest centers of civilization in the Middle East, Yemen was once part of the Minaean Kingdom and of the ancient Kingdom of Sheba, alter which it was captured successively by Egyptians, Ethiopians and Romans. it was converted to Islam in 628 A.D. and administered as a caliphate until 1538 when it came under Ottoman occupation in 1849. The second Ottoman occupation which began in 1872 was maintained until 1918 when autonomy was achieved through revolution. Formal boundaries were established in 1934 and a Republic was formed in 1962 leading to an eight year civil war between royalist imam and new republican forces.

The is an one Imadi Riyal coin minted in (1344 AH 1926 AD) under the Kingdom of Yemen. The obverse has the regnal year 1322, the reverse has the issue date 1344 at the lower left.

The is an one Rial coin minted in 1963 under the Yemen Arab Republic. The reverse has a sprig of the coffee plant. Weighs 19.75 grams of 0.720 fineness.



The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, formerly the Kingdom of Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, was a Balkan country located on the east shore of the Adriatic Sea.
Yugoslavia was proclaimed on Dec. 1, 1918, after the union of the Kingdom of Serbia, Montenegro and the South Slav territories of Austria-Hungary; and changed its official name from the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia on Oct. 3, 1929. The republic was composed of six autonomous republics -Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro - and two autonomous provinces within Serbia: Kosovo-Melohija and Vojvodina. The government of Yugoslavia attempted to remain neutral in World War II but, yielding to German pressure, aligned itself with the Axis powers in March of 1941; a few days later it was overthrown by revolutionary forces and its neutrality reasserted. The Nazis occupied the country on April 6, and throughout the remaining war years were resisted by a number of guerrilla armies, notably that of Marshal Josip Broz Tito. Alter the defeat of the Axis powers, a leftist coalition headed by Tito abolished the monarchy and, on Jan. 31, 1946, established a People's Republic. The collapse of the Federal Republic during 1991-1992 has resulted in the autonomous republics of Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia declaring their respective independence. Bosnia-Herzegovina is under military contest with the Serbian, Croat and Muslim populace opposing each other. Besides the remainder of the older Serbian sectors, a Serbian enclave in Knin located in southern Croatia has emerged celled REPUBLIKE SRPSKEKRAJINE or Serbian Republic - Krajina whose capital is Knin and has also declared Its independence 1n 1992 when the former Republics of Serbia and Montenegro became the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Later Montenegro broke away as a separate republic. Later yet, the Clinton administration aided the majority Albanians to set up a republic of Kosovo. The name Yugoslavia appears on the coinage in letters of the Cyrillic alphabet alone until formation of the Federated Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia in 1953, after which both the Cyrillic and Latin alphabets are employed. From 1965, the coin denomination appears in the 4 different languages of the federated republics in letters of both the Cyrillic and Latin alphabets (the Latin alphabet is used in Croatia and Slovenia).

This is a 500 Dinar coin minted in 1984 to celebrate the Winter Olympic Games held in Sarajevo. Weighs 23 grams of 0.925 fineness.


The British protectorate of Zanzibar and adjacent small islands, located in the Indian Ocean 22 miles (35 km.) off the coast of Tanganyika, comprised a portion of British East Africa. Zanzibar was also the name of a sultanate which included the Zanzibar and Kenya protectorates. Zanzibar has an area of 637 sq. mi. (1,651 sq. km.).

Zanzibar came under Portuguese control in 1503, was conquered by the Omani Arabs in 1698, became independent of Oman in 1860, and (with Pemba) came under British control in 1890. Britain granted the protectorate self-government in 1961, and independence within the British Commonwealth on Dec. 19, 1963. On April 26,1964, Tanganyika and Zanzibar (with Pemba) united to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. The name of the country, which remained within the British Commonwealth was changed to Tanzania on Oct. 29,1964.

This is the single crown issued by Zanzibar. It is a 1 Riyal piece dated 1299 AH.